If a few of the rocks to be employed in the rockwork are sunk half or three-fourths their depth in the soil near the site of the proposed rockwork, so as to have the appearance of a rocky ridge just cropping out, as the geologists say, then the rockwork will, to the eye of a spectator, seem to be connected with, and growing out of this rocky spur or ridge below: or, in other words, there will be an obvious reason for its being situated there, instead of its presenting alwholly artificial appearance.
In a previous page, when treating of the banks of pieces of water formed by art, we endeavored to show how the natural appearance of such banks would be improved by the judicious introduction of rocks partially imbedded into, and holding them up. Such situations, in the case of a small lake or pond, or a brook, are admirable sites for rockwork. Where the materials of a suitable kind are abundant, and tasteful ingenuity is not wanting, surprising effects may be produced in a small space. Caves and grottoes, where ferns and mosses would thrive admirably with the gentle drip from the roof, might be made of the overarching rocks arranged so as to appear like small natural caverns. Let the exterior be partially planted with low shrubs and climbing plants, as the wild clematis, and the effect of such bits of landscape could not but be agreeable in secluded portions of the grounds.
In many parts of the country, the secondary blue limestone abounds, which, in the small masses found loose in the woods, covered with mosses and ferns, affords the very finest material for artificial rockwork.
After all, much the safest way is never to introduce rockwork of any description, unless we feel certain that it will have a good effect. When a place is naturally picturesque, and abounds here and there with rocky banks, etc., little should be done but to heighten and aid the expressions of these, if they are wanting in spirit, by adding something more; or softening and giving elegance to the expression, if too wild, by planting the same with beautiful shrubs and climbers. On a tame sandy level, where rocks of any kind are unknown, their introduction in rockworks, nine times in ten, is more likely to give rise to emotions of the ridiculous, than those of the sublime or picturesque.
Fountains are highly elegant garden decorations, rarely seen in this country; which is owing, not so much, we apprehend, to any great cost incurred in putting them up, or any want of appreciation of their sparkling and enlivening effect in garden scenery, as to the fact that there are few artisans here, as abroad, whose business it is to construct and fit up architectural, and other jets d'eau.
The first requisite, where a fountain is a desideratum, is a constant supply of water, either from a natural source or an artificial reservoir, some distance higher than the level of the surface whence the jet or fountain is to rise. Where there is a pond, or other body of water, on a higher level than the proposed fountain, it is only necessary to lay pipes under the surface to conduct the supply of water to the required spot; but where there is no such head of water, the latter must be provided from a reservoir artificially prepared, and kept constantly full.
There are two very simple and cheap modes of effecting this, which we shall lay before our readers, and one or the other of which may be adopted in almost every locality. The first is to provide a large flat cistern of sufficient size, which is to be placed under the roof in the upper story of one of the outbuildings, the carriage-house for. example, and receive its supplies from the water collected on the roof of the building; the amount of water collected in this way from a roof of moderate size being much more than is generally supposed. The second is to sink a well of capacious size (where such is not already at command) in some part of the grounds where it will not be conspicuous, and over it to erect a small tower, the top of which shall contain a cistern and a wind-mill; which being kept in motion by the wind more or less almost every day in summer, will raise a sufficient quantity of water to keep the reservoir supplied from the well below. In either of these cases, it is only necessary to carry pipes from the cistern (under the surface, below the reach of frost) to the place where the jet is to issue; the supply in both these cases will, if properly arranged, be more than enough for the consumption of the fountain during the hours when it will be necessary for it to play, viz. from sunrise to evening.
The steam engine is often employed to force up water for the supply of fountains in many of the large public and royal gardens; but there are few cases in this country where private expenditures of this kind would be justifiable.
But where a small stream, or even the overflow of a perpetual spring, can be commanded, the hydraulic ram is the most perfect as well as the simplest and cheapest of all modes of raising water. A supply pipe of an inch in diameter is in many cases sufficient to work the ram and force water to a great distance; and where sufficient to fill a "driving pipe" of two inches diameter can be commanded, a large reservoir may be kept constantly filled.