For the use of those who require some guide in the selection of species, we subjoin the accompanying list of hardy and showy shrubs, which are at the same time easily procured in the United States.* A great number of additional species and varieties, and many more rare, might be enumerated, but such will be sufficiently familiar to the connoisseur already; and what we have said respecting botanical rarities in flowering plants may be applied with equal force to shrubs, viz. that in order to produce a brilliant effect, a few well chosen species, often repeated, are more effective than a great and ill-assorted melange.
In the following list, the shrubs are divided into two classes - No. 1 designating those of medium size, or low growth, and No. 2, those which are of the largest size.
* The reader may fairly be reminded that Mr. Downing was a most competent plantsman. Though longer experience and later introductions have considerably changed the nurserymen's lists, this catalog of plants will still be useful and interesting. - F. A. W.
1. Daphne mezereum, the Pink Mezereum, D. M. album, the white Mezereum.
2. Shepherdia argentea, the Buffalo berry; yellow.
1. Xanthorhiza apiifolia, the parsley-leaved Yellow-root; brown. 1. Cydonia japonica, the Japan Quince; scarlet.
1. Cydonia japonica alba, the Japan Quince; white.
2. Amelanchier Botryapium, the snowy Medlar. 1. Ribes aureum, the Missouri Currant; yellow.
1. Coronilla Emerus, the Scorpion Senna; yellow.
2. Magnolia conspicua, the Chinese chandelier Magnolia; white.
2. Crategus oxycantha, the scarlet Hawthorn.
2. Crategus oxycantha, fl. pleno, the double white Hawthorn.
2. Chionanthus virginica, the white Fringe tree.
1. Chionanthus latifolius, the broad-leaved Fringe tree; white.
1. Azalea, many fine varieties; red, white, and yellow.
1. Calycanthus florida, the Sweet-scented-shrub; brown.
1. Magnolia purpurea, the Chinese purple Magnolia.
2. Halesia tetraptera, the silver Bell tree; white.
2. Syringa vulgaris, the common white and red Lilacs.
1. Syringa persica, the Persian Lilac; white and purple.
1. Syringa persica laciniata, the Persian cut-leaved Lilac; purple.
1. Kerria japonica, the Japan Globe flower, yellow.
1. Lonicera tartarica, the Tartarian upright Honeysuckles; red and white. 1. Philadelphus coronarius, the common Syringo, and the double Syringo; white. 1. Spirsea hypericifolia, the St. Stephen's wreath; white. 1. Spiraea corymbosa, the cluster flowering Spirea; white. 1. Ribes sanguineum, the scarlet flowering Currant. 1. Prunus nana, the double dwarf Almond; pink.
1. Caragana arborescens, the Siberian Pea tree; yellow.
2. Magnolia soulangeana, the Soulange Magnolia; purple.
1. Paeonia moutan banksia, and rosea, the Chinese tree Paenoia; purple. 1. Benthamia frug if era, the red berried Benthamia; yellow.
1. Amorpha fruticosa, the Indigo Shrub; purple.
2. Colutea arborescens, the yellow Bladder-senna. 1. Colutea cruenta, the red Bladder-senna.
1. Cytisus capitatus, the cluster-flowered Cytisus; yellow.
1. Stuartia virginica, the white Stuartia.
1. Cornus sanguined, the bloody twig Dogwood; white.
1. Hydrangea quercifolia, the oak-leaved Hydrangea; white.
2. Philadelphus grandiflorus, the large flowering Syringo; white. 2. Viburnum Opulus, the Snow-ball; white.
2. Magnolia glauca, the swamp Magnolia; white.
1. Robinia hispida, the Rose-acacia.
1. Spiraea bella, the beautiful Spirea; red.
2. Sophora japonica, the Japan Sophora; white.
2. Sophora japonica pendula, the weeping Sophora; white.
2. Rhus Cotinus, the Venetian Fringe tree; yellow. (Brown tufts).
1. Ligustrum uulgare, the common Privet; white.
2. Cytisus Laburnum, the Laburnum; yellow.
2. Cytisus L. quercifolia, the oak-leaved Laburnum; white.
1. Cytisus purpureus, the purple Laburnum.
1. Cytisus argenteus, the silvery Cytisus; yellow.
1. Cytisus nigricans, the black rooted Cytisus; yellow.
2. Kolreuteria paniculata, the Japan Kolreuteria; yellow.
1. Clethra alnifolia, the alder-leaved Clethra; white.
1. Symphoricarpos racemosa, the Snowberry; (in fruit) white.
2. Hibiscus syriacus, the double purple, double white, double striped double blue, and variegated leaved Altheas.
1. Spiraea tomentosa, the tomentose Spirea; red.
2. Magnolia glauca thompsoniana, the late flowering Magnolia; white.
1. Baccharis halmifolia, the Groundsel tree; white tufts.
2. Euonymus europaeus, the European Strawberry tree (in fruit), red. 2. Euonymus europaeus alba, the European Strawberry tree; the fruit white. 2. Euonymus latifolius, the broad-leaved Strawberry tree; red. 1. Daphne mezereum autumnalis, the autumnal Mezereum.
Besides the above, there are a great number of charming varieties of hardy roses, some of which may be grown in the common way on their own roots, and others grafted on* stocks, two, three, or four feet high, as standards or tree-roses. The effect of the latter is wonderfully brilliant when they are in full bloom. Perhaps the situation where they are displayed to the greatest advantage is, in the center of small round, oval, or square beds in the flower-garden where the remainder of the plants composing the bed are of dwarfish growth, so as not to hide the stem and head of the tree-roses.
There are, unfortunately, but few evergreen shrubs that will endure the protracted cold of the winters of the northern states. The fine hollies, Portugal laurels, laurustinuses, etc., which are the glory of English gardens in autumn and winter, are not hardy enough to endure the depressed temperature of ten degrees below zero. South of Philadelphia, these beautiful exotic evergreens may be acclimated with good success, and will add greatly to the interest of the shrubbery and grounds in winter.
Beside the balsam firs and the spruce firs, the arbor vitae, and other evergreen trees, the following hardy species of evergreen shrubs may be introduced with advantage in the pleasure ground groups, viz: -
Rhododendron maximum, the American rose bay or big Laurel; white and pink, several varieties (in shaded places). Kalmia latifolia, the common Laurel; several colors. Juniperus,communis suecia, the Swedish Juniper. Juniperus communis hibernia, the Irish Juniper. Buxus arborescens, the common Tree-box, the Gold striped Tree-box, and the Silver striped Tree-box. Ilex opaca, the American Holly. Crategus pyracantha, the Evergreen Thorn. Mahonia aquifolium, the Holly leaved Barberry.
The Conservatory or the greenhouse is an elegant and delightful appendage to the villa or mansion, when there is a taste for plants among the different members of a family. Those who have not enjoyed it, can hardly imagine the pleasure afforded by a well-chosen collection of exotic plants, which, amid the genial warmth of an artificial climate, continue to put forth their lovely blossoms, and exhale their delicious perfumes, when all out-of-door nature is chill and desolate. The many hours of pleasant and healthy exercise and recreation afforded to the ladies of a family, where they take an interest themselves in the growth and vigor of the plants, are certainly no trifling considerations where the country residence is the place of habitation throughout the whole year. Often during the inclemency of our winter and spring months, there are days when either the excessive cold, or the disagreeable state of the weather, prevents in a great measure many persons, and especially females, from taking exercise in the open air. To such, the conservatory would be an almost endless source of enjoyment and amusement; and if they are true amateurs, of active exertion also.