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Laboratory Manual Of Horticulture | by Ginn And Company



This manual contains the exercises that have been given in connection with the work in General Horticulture at the Ohio State University, Michigan Agricultural College, and University of Nebraska.

TitleLaboratory Manual Of Horticulture
AuthorGeorge W. Hood
PublisherGinn And Company
Year1915
Copyright1915, George W. Hood
AmazonLaboratory Manual Of Horticulture

Laboratory Manual Of Horticulture With Illustrations Of Methods, Equipment, And Apparatus

By George W. Hood Associate Professor Of Horticulture University Of Nebraska

-Preface
This manual contains the exercises that have been given in connection with the work in General Horticulture at the Ohio State University, Michigan Agricultural College, and University of Nebraska. ...
-Exercise I. Comparative Study Of Seed-Testers
Material. Dinner plates, blotters, canton flannel, germinating cups, tile germinator, Geneva seed-tester, germinating chamber. Seed-testers are used for the purpose of testing the vitality of seeds...
-Exercise II. Seed-Testing
Material. Seeds of clover, celery, onion, cucumber, tomato, wheat, cabbage, oats, eggplant, beet, peas, rye, beans. Apparatus. Sprouting-chamber, Geneva seed-tester, pane of glass the size of the t...
-Exercise III. Seed Vitality Limited By Age
Material. Seeds of the cucumber, tomato, and cabbage, from one to ten years old. Apparatus. Sprouting-chamber, Geneva seed-tester. It is common knowledge that certain seeds lose their vitality w...
-Exercise IV. Absorption Of Water By Seeds
Material. Seeds of beans, peas, corn, canna, honey locust, and field beans. Apparatus. Scale, 250-cc. graduated cylinder, 100-cc. wide-mouthed bottles. 1. To determine volume. Partly fill the gr...
-Exercise V. Germination Hastened By Soaking Seeds
Material. Seeds of beans, peas, corn, lettuce, beet, cabbage, salsify, parsnip, carrot, wheat, and oats. Apparatus. 100-cc. wide-mouthed bottles, Geneva seed-tester, sprouting-chamber. 1. Count ...
-Exercise VI. The Effect Of Drought On Germinating Seeds
Material. Seeds of clover, peas, beans, alfalfa, cowpeas, corn, wheat, rye, and oats. Apparatus. Sprouting-chamber, Geneva seed-tester. Germination is often interfered with by the drying out of ...
-Exercise VII. Seeds Treated With Chemicals To Hasten Germination
Material. Seeds of the honey locust, asparagus, wheat, barley, oats, rye, radish, cabbage. 5, 10, and 50 per cent and concentrated sulphuric acid, saturated solution of limewater, 2 per cent solution ...
-Exercise VIII. The Effect Of Commercial-Fertilizer Solutions On Seeds
Material. Clover seed, 1 per cent solution of sodium nitrate, 1 per cent solution of muriate of potash, 1 per cent solution of phosphoric acid, and a saturated solution of limewater. Apparatus. 100...
-Exercise IX. The Action Of Fungicides On Seeds
Material. Seeds of the wheat, cabbage, and corn, 1 per cent solution of copper sulphate, 25 per cent salt solution. Apparatus. 100-cc. wide-mouthed bottles, Geneva seed-tester. Seeds are often t...
-Exercise X. A Study Of Bulbs
Material and apparatus. Bulbs of the hyacinth, tulip, onion, and lily; sharp knife. Bulbs of all kinds are specialized buds. They are made up of a short and rudimentary axis closely incased in tran...
-Exercise XI. A Study Of Corms
Material and apparatus. Corms of the gladiolus and the crocus; sharp knife. A corm is a bulblike organ, differing from a bulb in being solid throughout and not composed of fleshy scales. Cormous pl...
-Exercise XII. A Study Of Soft Or Green Wood Cuttings
Material. Stock plants of the geranium, coleus, chrysanthemum, carnation, cactus, oleander, hydrangea, and rose, and rooted cuttings of each. Soft or green wood cuttings are more commonly employed ...
-Exercise XIII. A Study Of Leaf Cuttings
Material. Stock plants of the begonia, bryophyllum calyci-num, and gloxinia, and rooted leaf cuttings of each. Many plants having thick, fleshy leaves can easily be propagated by leaf cuttings. In ...
-Exercise XIV. A Study Of Root Cuttings
Material. Blackberry and horse-radish roots and planted cuttings of each. Many plants can be multiplied with ease by means of short cuttings of the roots. True root cuttings possess no buds at all,...
-Exercise XV. A Study Of Hardwood, Or Dormant, Cuttings
Material and apparatus. Currant and gooseberry branches and rooted cuttings of each; sharp knife. Hardwood cuttings are made from the dormant, or mature, wood of dicotyledonous plants, and should b...
-Exercise XVI. A Study Of One-Eye, Two-Eye, Three-Eye, Mallet, And Heel Cuttings
Material. Grape canes, stored and rooted cuttings of the grape. These cuttings fall under the general head of hardwood cuttings, but they represent different forms which are best suited to certain ...
-Exercise XVII. Plums. A Study Of Buds (Prunus Sp.)
Material and apparatus. Branches of several of the commercial groups of plums, bearing fruit buds and branch buds; razor, dissecting lens. The genus Prunus includes the plum and the cherry, and is ...
-Exercise XVIII. The Cherry. A Study Of Buds (Prunus Sp.)
Material and apparatus. Branches of the sour and the sweet cherry, bearing both branch buds and fruit buds; razor, dissecting lens. The Cherry There are two large groups of cherries - Prunus cer...
-Exercise XIX. Peach. A Study Of Buds (Amygdalus Sp.)
Material and apparatus. Branches of the several races of the peach, bearing fruit buds and branch buds; razor, dissecting lens. The Peach The peach is divided into five somewhat distinct races. ...
-Exercise XX. A Study Of Buds-Pomaceous Fruits
Material. Branches of several varieties each, of the apple, pear, and quince, bearing both leaf and fruit spurs. Apparatus. Razor and lens. Apples and pears are classed with a natural group of p...
-The Apple (Malus Sylvestris)
Branches of the following varieties are suggested: Northern Spy, Ben Davis, Wolf River, Early Harvest, Fameuse, Jonathan, Lady, Spitzenburg, Duchess of Oldenburg, Pippin, Greening, Russet, Bellflower....
-The Pear (Pyrus Communis And Pyrus Sinensis)
Study the pear in the same way as the apple. Varieties suggested: Bartlett, Seckel, Sand pear, President, Kieffer, Anjou, Angouleme. 1. Make drawings, natural size, and four inches in length, showi...
-The Quince (Cydonia Vulgaris)
The quince is a fruit similar in structure to the apple and the pear. It is borne upon small, irregular-growing trees from ten to twelve feet high, and is a most excellent fruit for preserves. Stud...
-Exercise XXI. Grape. A Study Of Buds-Vine Fruits
Material and apparatus. Canes of the grape, showing well-developed buds; razor, lens. The Grape (Vitis Sp) The grape is one of our oldest fruits. The history of the Old World grape goes back to ...
-Exercise XXII. Pruning
Material and apparatus. Small orchard; pruning-saw,pruning-knife, pruning-shears, long-handled pruner. After the student has become thoroughly familiar with the different kinds of buds of the sever...
-Exercise XXIII. The Pruning Of The Apple
Material and apparatus. Small orchard; pruning-saw, pruning-knife. Discuss the pruning of the apple and give the reason for each step. Discuss how a one-year-old tree must be pruned; a two-year-old...
-Exercise XXIV. The Pruning Of The Pear
Material and apparatus. Small pear orchard; pruning-saw, pruning-knife. Discuss the pruning of a one-year-old tree, a two-year-old tree, a ten-year-old tree, and a mature tree. How does the pruning...
-Exercise XXV. The Pruning Of The Plum And The Cherry
Material. Small plum and cherry orchard. Apparatus. Pruning-saw, pruning-knife. Discuss the pruning of the plum and the cherry. What different methods are practiced on the two kinds of trees? Ho...
-Exercise XXVI. The Pruning Of The Peach
Material and apparatus. Small peach orchard; pruning-saw, pruning-shears. Give in detail the proper method to follow in the pruning of the peach. How does this differ from the method used for the a...
-Exercise XXVII. The Pruning Of The Grape
Material and apparatus. Small vineyard; pruning-shears, pruning-knife. Discuss in detail the pruning of the grape. Where are the fruit buds found? Do they occur on the present season's wood or late...
-Exercise XXVIII. The Pruning Of The Brambles
Material and apparatus. Small patch of brambles; bramble hooks and pruning-shears. The blackberry, raspberry, and dewberry are classed as brambles. The method of pruning such plants is very differe...
-Exercise XXIX. The Pruning Of The Bush Fruits
Material and apparatus. Small patch of currants and gooseberries; pruning-knife and pruning-shears. The currant and the gooseberry are two of the most important of the bush fruits. The method of pr...
-Exercise XXX. The Study Of Shield And Prong Budding
Material. Bud sticks, stocks of the peach or willow (preferably steamed, if the exercise is practiced in the laboratory). Fig. 19. Shield budding. A, the stock, showing the longit...
-Exercise XXXI. The Study Of Plate Budding And H-Budding
Material. Bud sticks, stocks of the peach or willow. Apparatus. Budding-knife, raffia or grafting-cord. Plate Budding This form of budding is used on certain plants where the shield bud is not s...
-Exercise XXXII. The Study Of Flute Budding, Ring Budding, And Chip Budding
Material. Bud sticks, stocks of the peach or willow. Apparatus. Raffia or grafting-cord, budding-knife. Flute Budding Flute budding is a form of budding ocasionally employed on certain plants. I...
-Exercise XXXIII. The Study Of Grafting-Waxes
Material. Resin, beeswax, rendered beef tallow, raw linseed oil, white resin, alcohol, turpentine, Burgundy pitch, red ocher, white pitch, Venetian red, No. 16 white knitting-cotton. Apparatus. Gra...
-Exercise XXXIV. The Study Of Splice, Whip, And Double-Whip Grafting
Material. One-year-old apple-seedling roots, scions from apple trees. Apparatus. Sharp budding-knife, raffia or grafting-cord. Grafting is the operation of inserting into a stock a scion or twig...
-Exercise XXXV. The Study Of Cleft Grafting And Bark Grafting
Fig. 29. A very good type of grafting-chisel, showing the first position in cleft grafting. Material. Stocks cut from apple or pear trees from one to two inches in diameter and from twelve to ...
-Exercise XXXVI. The Study Of Bridge Grafting
Material. Stocks of the apple, three inches in diameter and twelve inches in length, scions from the same kind of trees. Apparatus. Sharp knife, grafting-wax. Bridge grafting is used to save gir...
-Exercise XXXVII. The Study Of Side Grafting
Material. Stocks of the apple or pear, one inch in diameter and twelve inches in length, scions from the same kind of trees. Apparatus. Sharp, narrow chisel and sharp knife. Side grafting is the metho...
-Exercise XXXVIII. The Study Of Veneer Grafting
Material. Stocks of the apple or pear from one half to three fourths of an inch in diameter. Apparatus. Grafting-cord or raffia, sharp knife or chisel. This form of grafting is adapted to ornamenta...
-Exercise XXXIX. The Study Of Bordeaux Mixture
Material. Copper sulphate, stone lime, hydrated lime. Apparatus. Quart fruit jar, granite kettle, glass stirring-rod. Fungicides are chemicals that are used for the prevention or the killing of ...
-Exercise XL. The Study Of Lime-Sulphur
Material. Stone lime, flowers of sulphur, commercial lime-sulphur. Apparatus. One-gallon granite kettle, hydrometer, large glass cylinders, cooking burner. It has been learned that lime-sulphur ...
-Exercise XLI. The Study Of Self-Boiled Lime-Sulphur
Material. Stone lime, flowers of sulphur. Apparatus. Granite kettle, stirring-rod. Self-boiled lime-sulphur differs from the lime-sulphur wash in Exercise XL chiefly in that there is no artifici...
-Exercise XLII. The Study Of Ammoniacal Solution Of Copper Carbonate
Material. Copper sulphate, carbonate of soda, ammonia. Apparatus. Quart glass jar, stirring-rod, granite kettle. To make this fungicide it is necessary first to make the copper carbonate. The common f...
-Exercise XLIII. The Study Of Paris Green And Arsenate Of Lead
Material. Paris green, powdered arsenate of lead, paste arsenate of lead. Apparatus. Quart glass jars, stirring-rod. Insecticides differ from fungicides in that they are chemicals used for the d...
-Exercise XLIV. The Study Of Kerosene Emulsion
Material. Laundry soap, kerosene. Apparatus. Granite kettle, cooking-burner, stirring-rod. This insecticide is used for many scale insects, and also for some other of the sucking insects, such a...
-Exercise XLV. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ Date_____________________ Group__________________________________________...
-Exercise XLVI. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ Date_______________________ Group________________________________________...
-Exercise XLVII. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________ Date_________________ Group________________________________________________ Syn...
-Exercise XLVIII. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit Being studied) Variety________________________________ Date._________________________ Group___________________________________...
-Exercise XLIX. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ Date_______________________ Group________________________________________...
-Exercise L. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ Date_______________________ Group________________________________________...
-Exercise LI. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ DAte_______________________ Group________________________________________...
-Exercise LII. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) VARIETY___________________________________ DATE___________________________ Group_______________________________...
-Exercise LIII. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ Date_______________________ Group________________________________________...
-Exercise LIV. A Study Of The Apple
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ Date_______________________ Group___________ Synonyms_________________...
-Exercise LV. A Study Of The Grape
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LVI. A Study Of The Grape
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LVII. A Study Of The Grape
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety________________________________ Date_________________________ Group____________________________________...
-Exercise LVIII. A Study Of The Grape
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) VARIETY___________________________________ Date------------. Group_____________________________________________...
-Exercise LIX. A Study Of The Grape
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LX. A Study Of The Grape
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXI. A Study Of The Peach
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXII. A Study Of The Peach
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ DAte_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXIII. A Study Of The Peach
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXIV. A Study Of The Peach
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXV. A Study Of The Peach
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXVI. A Study Of The Peach
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXVII. A Study Of The Pear
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXVIII. A Study Of The Pear
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXIX. A Study Of The Pear
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ Date_______________________ Group________________________________________...
-Exercise LXX. A Study Of The Pear
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety________________________ Date_______________________ Group______________________________________________...
-Exercise LXXI. A Study Of The Pear
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXXII. A Study Of The Pear
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXXIII. A Study Of The Plum
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXXIV. A Study Of The Plum
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ Date_______________________ Group________________________________________...
-Exercise LXXV. A Study Of The Plum
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXXVI. A Study Of The Plum
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety______________________________ Date_______________________ Group________________________________________...
-Exercise LXXVII. A Study Of The Plum
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date_______________________ Group_________________________________________...
-Exercise LXXVIII. A Study Of The Plum
(Underscore or star the terms that apply to the variety of fruit being studied) Variety_____________________________ Date______________________ Group__________________________________________...
-Glossary. Descriptive Terms
This list is intended to cover most of the important terms which might be confusing to the student. Several general terms used in describing fruit are listed first, and the remaining terms follow in a...
-Basin
The depression in which the calyx is set is technically called the basin, and several terms are used in describing it. Abrupt basin. A basin in which the sides show a sudden slope. Corrugated basin...
-Calyx
The lower part of the flower is called the calyx. The outer green coverings of the flower bud are called the calyx lobes. Calyx lobes remain visible in the mature fruit of some apples, pears, and quin...
-Calyx Tube
We recognize three kinds, or shapes, of calyx tubes; namely, the cone-shaped, the funnel-shaped, and the urn-shaped. Cone-shaped calyx tube. A calyx tube resembling, or conforming to, the general s...
-Cavity
The depression around the stem of a fruit is technically called the cavity. Acuminate cavity. A cavity in which the stem meets the side of the cavity in a sharp, narrow angle. Fig. 41. A, o...
-Color
The color of fruit is quite varied and ranges from the light yellow of the white fruits, through the various shades of red, into deep purple. This condition can better be explained by several examples...
-Core
In describing the core, its location in the fruit and the size and character of the carpels and seeds are all considered. Abaxile. A term used to describe the core when it lies to one side of the a...
-Carpels
Carpels are the parchmentlike walls of the seed cells. They vary in form somewhat as leaves do, and the terms used in describing leaves may well be applied in describing the carpels. The two sides of ...
-Core Line
The core line is that portion of the fleshy part of the apple surrounding the seed cavities. It constitutes part of the core and is limited by visible lines. Clasping core line. A core line which a...
-Dots
Dots are small, irregular specks found on some fruits. They are described by the following terms: Areolar. A term used to describe dots which are surrounded by a halo of a, paler or brighter color....
-Flavor
The flavor of fruit is determined by the acids, sugars, aromatic oils, and other constituents found in the fruit, and it varies slightly with each fruit. Acid. Possessing a sour taste. Astringen...
-Form
The form of a fruit means the shape and is described by the following terms: Angular. Having sides more or less ribbed. Conical. Tapering gradually from the base to the apex. Globose, globula...
-Skin
The skin of the different fruits becomes much modified because of the varying conditions under which they are grown. The texture, form, color, and any other characteristics should be noted. Bloom. ...
-Size
Fruits are usually graded into seven sizes as follows: very small, small, medium, below medium, above medium, large, very large. It is apparent that, owing to the great variation in fruits, no defi...
-Stamens
Basal. A term applied to the stamens when they are located near the base of the calyx tube. Marginal. A term applied to the stamens when they are located near the outer margin of the calyx tube. Media...
-Stem
The character of the stem is of some importance, although it varies much on different individual fruits of the same variety. Unfortunately, however, there are comparatively few varieties which show a ...
-Suture
Suture (meaning seam) is more conspicuous on the stone fruits than on any other class. It is a furrow, or depression, extending from the base to the apex on either one or both sides of the fruit. ...
-Special Terms for the Grape
Foxy. Possessing a sour, unpleasant taste, as found in some grapes which have a coarse flavor, like the fox grapes. Brush. The bristlelike portion left attached to the pedicel when the berry is remove...
-Special Terms For The Pear
Neck. The narrow part toward the stalk. The neck may be long, narrow, short, obtuse, acute, distinct, or obscure. Body. The larger part of the fruit toward the crown. The body may be small, large, obl...









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