This section is from the "The Fruit Manual; Containing The Descriptions and synonymes of the fruits and fruit trees commonly met with in the gardens & orchards of Great Britain, with selected lists of those most worthy of cultivation" book, by Robert Hogg. Also available from Amazon: The Fruit Manual
In the following arrangement I have endeavoured to classify all those varieties of cherries that are most nearly allied to each other, for the purpose of facilitating their identification.
All the varieties of cultivated cherries will be found to consist of eight races, into which I have arranged them:—I. The sweet, heart-shaped cherries, with tender and dark-coloured flesh, I have called Black-Geans. II. The pale-coloured, sweet cherries, with tender, light yellow, and translucent flesh and skin, I have distin-guished by the name of Amber-Geans, as at once expressive of their character. III. Here we have the dark-coloured, sweet cherries, with somewhat of the Bigarreau character. Their flesh is not so firm and crackling as that of the Bigarreaus, but con-siderably harder than in the Black Geans, and these I propose to call Hearts. IV. Includes the Bigarreaus, properly so called, with light-coloured mottled skin, and hard, crackling flesh. V. These are called Dukes, as they include all those so well known under that name. VI. Embraces all those nearly allied to the Dukes, but with pale-red skin, translucent skin and flesh, and uncoloured juice; they are, therefore, distinguished as Red-Dukes. VII. Includes all those, the trees of which have long, slender, and pendent shoots, and dark-coloured fruit, with acid, coloured juice, and appropriately termed Morellos; and VIII. I have called Kentish, as it includes all those pale-red, acid varieties, of which the Kentish cherry is the type.
The advantages of such an arrangement and nomenclature are, that they not only facilitate identification, but assist description and interchange of ideas. If, for instance, a new cherry is introduced, and it is said to belong to the Red-Dukes, we know at once that it has some affinity with those familiar varieties Belle de Choisy and Carnation; or if it be a Morello, we know it is a dark-fleshed, acid cherry; while if we are told it is a Kentish, then we know it is a pale-fleshed, acid variety; and so with all the other divisions.