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The Complete Garden



The author has for some time felt that there was needed in the landscape field, especially by the amateur gardener, a book of this type. He has believed that such a book would be of value to everyone who is interested in the important work of landscape plantings, not only to the amateur but to the expert gardener and to the property owner who has made an exhaustive study of plant uses and plant adaptations.

TitleThe Complete Garden
AuthorAlbert D. Taylor
PublisherDoubleday, Page & Company
Year1921
Copyright1921, Doubleday, Page & Company
AmazonThe Complete Garden

By Albert D.Taylor, M.S.A

Fellow American Society of Landscape Architects Non-resident Professor Landscape Architecture in Ohio State University.

Assisted By Gordon D. Cooper, B. S. A - Member American Society of Landscape Architects.

Member American Society of Landscape Architects

Illustrated With Fifty Full Page Cuts, Four Line Charts, And Nine Coloured Plates.

Garden City, N. Y., And Toronto Doubleday, Page & Company Main Library-Agriculture Dept.

-Preface
Reasons For This Book The author has for some time felt that there was needed in the landscape field, especially by the amateur gardener, a book of this type. He has believed that such a book would...
-Preface. Part 2
Object of This Book It is hoped that this book will serve as a ready reference to those who have no authoritative source of information, and whose limited opportunity and limited time for observati...
-Preface. Part 3
Acknowledgments For notes on the behaviour of the newer introductions and for valuable assistance in the checking of the plant lists the author is indebted to M. H. Horvath, Landscape Architect, Cl...
-List Of Illustrations
I. The scarlet thorns planted on both sides of the wall on either side of the gate make an excellent frame for this architectural detail at the garden entrance.................Frontispiece II. This...
-List Of Illustrations. Part 2
XIX. The extended lawn area often requires specimen trees to lend scale and colour to the picture, and it also offers opportunity to display the natural beauty of many of our fine specimen trees.........
-List Of Illustrations. Part 3
What is more beautiful in the landscape than the intensely brilliant colours of the autumn foliage of many of our trees and shrubs? More plants should be used for the value of their autumn foliage eff...
-Part I. General Planting Suggestions. The Complete Garden. Chapter I. Introduction
The Method of Treatment The lists of plants do not represent a complete and thoroughly exhaustive study of the subject. The general discussions and groupings will provide persons interested in the ...
-Introduction. Part 2
The Purpose of the Illustrations A number of photographs and drawings have been introduced throughout this volume. These photographs are illustrative of various group ideas covering uses of plants....
-Introduction. Part 3
The Range of Plant Adaptation in General After studying a compilation of this kind the great range of plant adaptations becomes evident. There is a large group of materials which are hardy under al...
-Chapter II. Planting And Seeding Seasons. General Considerations
Comparative data based on the best reliable sources of information relative to planting seasons and lawn-seeding seasons are so interesting and so valuable, as a basis of establishing definite relatio...
-Deciduous Trees, Shrubs, and Vines
The transplanting of deciduous trees, shrubs, and vines is commonly carried out during their dormant season. It is possible in the spring, however, to carry on planting of deciduous woody plants, at a...
-Deciduous Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Continued
Perennials Planting seasons for herbaceous perennials are divided into spring and autumn in the North. One of the first factors when planting older plants is the blooming period of the species unde...
-Deciduous Planting Dates
The following tabulation shows the average dates for the beginning and the ending of normal planting seasons for deciduous plants in different sections of the United States and Canada. Note how nearly...
-Lawn Seeding Dates
A tabulation showing the beginning and ending dates during normal spring and fall seasons for seeding of lawns. Abnormal weather conditions affect these seasons more than they affect the seasons for p...
-Evergreen Planting Dates
The planting season for evergreens begins later in the spring and earlier in the fall than the corresponding seasons for deciduous plants. The reason is that the majority of evergreens will not surviv...
-Chapter III. Pruning
Reasons for Pruning The reasons for pruning are: (i) To secure a desired form or height of the plant; (2) To remove injured, diseased, or dead branches; (3) To renovate or rejuvenate old p...
-Trees - Top Pruning
Street trees should be pruned so that branches will not interfere with pedestrians or vehicles. The roots of street trees are more confined than those of other trees and they require top pruning to ba...
-Trees - Top Pruning. Continued
Hedges Most hedge plants, such as the Japanese barberry and the privet, if allowed to grow as specimen plants unrestrained by severe pruning, will produce a considerable quantity of flowers and als...
-Topiary Effects
The operation of pruning to produce topiary effects is one that requires much more careful attention and more frequent pruning than almost any other type of pruning work, with the exception of possibl...
-Topiary Effects. Part 2
Evergreens Evergreens need but little pruning. The pruning of evergreens is done to secure formal shapes, to thicken growth, or to preserve symmetry. Tips of branches should be sheared in the sprin...
-Topiary Effects. Part 3
Roses Prune hybrid perpetual and most other hardy roses in April when sap begins to flow and buds start to swell. At this time dead wood may be most easily distinguished and mulch should not be dis...
-Chapter IV. Planting And Transplanting
Reasons for Transplanting Transplanting, in its general definition, is the operation of taking a plant up from the soil and planting it again in a new location, where it is expected to continue nor...
-Spacing of Plants
One of the important factors in successful plantings is the correct spacing of plants at the time of transplanting. Every plant requires space in which to develop normally. The result of close plantin...
-Spacing Of Plants
The Following Is A Table Of Distances As A Guide In Transplanting Purpose Typical Plants Close Planting Normal Distance Allees - Tree...
-Conditions for Transplanting
It is better to transplant stock on a dull, moist day, rather than on a bright, sunny day, because the planter needs to give less attention to the drying out and consequent injury to fibrous root grow...
-Transplanting Nursery Stock
It is essential that the purchaser of nursery stock should request that such material be lifted and packed properly. Nursery stock in general must be dug carefully to preserve as much of the root grow...
-Transplanting - Collected Stock
Collected stock needs more careful attention than nursery stock. Collected material usually The following is a descriptive memorandum to accompany Plate No. VI. A If plants are not to be planted...
-Season of Year for Transplanting
Planting seasons in different localities are influenced by many factors. Soil conditions and climatic conditions are the most important, as seen in Chapter II (Planting And Seeding Seasons. General Co...
-Planting Beds
General Preparations of. Soil for planting should be prepared carefully. Beds for shrubbery should be dug at least twelve inches deep and ample width and depth provided for trees, varying according to...
-Heeling-in Stock to Be Transplanted
When shipments of stock are received it is frequently impossible to plant the material as rapidly as it is unpacked, and it is often impossible to plant the stock because the beds are not prepared. Th...
-Root Protection and Puddling
The important object in transplanting is to transfer the plant to its new position in such a condition that growth will immediately continue as nearly normal as possible when growing conditions become...
-Drainage for Transplanted Stock
The soil in which plants are placed should be considered carefully. Sandy soils which have ample drainage, and clayey soils, which naturally retain water, require distinctly different treatment. It is...
-Balled-and-Burlapped Root Systems
Planting material is often lifted with a ball of earth left intact around the roots. The ball of earth after being lifted is then carefully wrapped with burlap. This process is used with large materia...
-Depth for Transplanting
The question is often asked as to how deep stock should be set when it is transplanted. This is a query which must be applied to various types of material according to the special requirements of each...
-Fertilizing Transplanted Stock
In using fertilizers it is not advisable to apply them in any quantity so that they will come in direct contact with the roots of newly transplanted stock. It is always essential for plants to become ...
-Tamping and Watering
Soil should be made compact in among the roots of newly transplanted stock by watering or tamping. Tamping may be accomplished by pressing down the soil with the heel or a stick. In tamping, care shou...
-Transplanting Small Seedlings
For transplanting small seedlings of trees and shrubs a well-protected spot should be selected, and the ground should be prepared to a depth of twelve or fifteen inches by deep spading and careful rak...
-Pruning Transplanted Stock
Suggestions with reference to pruning are covered more fully in the chapter on Pruning. One of the fundamental practices to be followed in connection with the correct transplanting of stock is to pr...
-Transplanting Trees
Some plants, particularly trees, may be transplanted successfully while young but are more difficult to move as they get older. Examples of this are the hickory and oaks, which, with the exception of ...
-Method of Procedure in Transplanting Large Trees
It is economical in transplanting large trees to adopt the following method of procedure. In selecting large trees for transplanting great care should be exercised to select only those individual t...
-Fertilizing Newly Transplanted Trees
In transplanting trees there is great danger that they may be over-fertilized. A tree which has just been transplanted has suffered a severe shock to its root system. It is not in a condition to utili...
-Transplanting Nursery-grown Trees
Nursery trees are trees which have been grown under nursery conditions for at least two or three years. The most desirable method of handling such trees is to ball-and-burlap them, to lessen the dange...
-Transplanting Shrubs Efficiently
In transplanting shrubbery the stock should be left out of the ground as short a time as possible. A crew of two or three men under one competent planting foreman is as many as can be operated to good...
-Transplanting Vines
The transplanting of vines is similar to transplanting shrubs. Vines are very often planted too close to foundation walls. Care must be taken not to set plants against a wall, but rather three or four...
-Transplanting Perennials
The season for transplanting perennials is not quite as definite as the season for transplanting trees and shrubs. Under normal conditions of cloudy days and good mulching protection to prevent later ...
-Transplanting Evergreens
Evergreens should not be transplanted to a cold soil, but rather into a soil that is sufficiently warm to permit root growth to begin immediately and to continue either during the spring and summer ...
-Transplanting Annuals
It is preferable to transplant annuals in a fine, loose loam, and never to transplant them in a heavier clay soil, which will pack and dry out. Upon the size of the plants will depend the care that it...
-Chapter V. Lawns
The first part of this chapter treats of conditions in the North and the second part of the chapter treats of conditions in the South. ...
-Lawns For The North. Preparation of Lawn Areas
The keynote of success in securing a good lawn is thorough preparation of the area before seeding. Failures are almost invariably due to poor preparation rather than to poor seed. Grading should be fi...
-Fertilizer For Lawn Preparation
In the preparation of a lawn area the problem of correctly fertilizing this area is an important one. On the less fertile and poor types of soil a liberal application of well-rotted manure together wi...
-Drainage of Lawn Area
A part of the preparation of all lawns which are constructed upon the heavy types of soil should consist of correct drainage in order to secure surface conditions conducive to the growth of good lawn ...
-Seeding of Lawns
A general rule is to sow in April and May; or September and October (See Plate III). It is but seldom that sowing in June or July is successful. If sown before the fall rains, grass should become suff...
-Seeding of Lawns. Continued
Sodding Sodding instead of seeding has the following advantages: (1) grass of a known texture can be obtained; (2) an immediate stand of grass is secured; (3) sod can be laid at any season except w...
-Lawns For The South. Soil and Climatic Conditions
The extreme heat and the long dry spells during the summer months throughout the southern states make it inadvisable to try to establish a turf similar to the turf of the northern lawns, composed most...
-Types of Grasses for Lawns
There are three groups of grasses which are used for the development of lawns in the far south (throughout Georgia, Alabama, and Florida). The first group consists of the more or less native grasses, ...
-Types of Soils
In the preparation and development of lawn areas, especially on virgin soil, the land must be cleared and the stumps removed. It is preferable that stumps should either be pulled out by tractor or tea...
-Planting and Seeding Lawns
The season for making a lawn varies with the kind of a lawn which is desired, and also with the season of the year when the lawn is to be used. Especially in the far southern states, some lawns may be...
-Chapter VI. Bulb Culture
Characteristics of Bulbs A bulb is a large dormant bud, and is a condensed plant when dormant. Bulbs can develop only flowers which were formed within them before they were ripened. The dormant per...
-Bulb Culture. Continued
Soil and Drainage Requirements Bulbs should be planted in a well-drained, deep, rich soil in order to develop successfully. In wet soils put a handful of sand under each bulb to keep the water away...
-Treatment of Bulbs After Flowering
Bulbs will not ripen if the tops are cut very soon after flowering. For best results, do not remove the tops before late June, or until leaves turn brown. When cutting flowers cut as few leaves as pos...
-Forcing Bulbs
Bulbs are grown extensively, both privately and commercially, for cut flowers, and for indoor use during the winter season. It is not hard to achieve success in forcing bulbs if two important rules ar...
-Chapter VII. Maintenance Of Trees, Shrubs, And Vines
Requirements The maintenance of trees, shrubs, and vines, since they are almost invariably planted where they are expected to remain permanently, presents fewer difficulties than the care of perenn...
-Spraying of Plants
Spraying of plants as a scientific practice is, comparatively speaking, a modern procedure, but the necessity for doing something to protect plants against insects and plant diseases has been understo...
-Seasons for Spraying of Plants
The seasons for outdoor spraying are two: the summer or growing season, and the winter or dormant season. Summer sprays are invariably not applied so strong as winter sprays, because the bark on the n...
-Spray Chemicals Used
The spray chemicals used are those which are best adapted to destroy the various forms of plant and animal parasites which it is desired to attack. Sometimes it is possible to combine two forms of che...
-Outfits for Spraying
There are various spraying outfits adapted to the various requirements dependent on the amount of work to be done and the physical difficulties to be overcome. Probably the best small outfit for the a...
-Formulas for Sprays
The formulas for some of the simpler insecticides and fungicides will be given here; but it is generally more advisable for the amateur to purchase his chemicals already mixed and in packages of a siz...
-Symptoms and Treatments. Diseased Plants Or Those With Insect Pests
The following list shows in parallel columns (1) the symptoms which appear upon diseased plants or those with insect pests, (2) the cause and lastly (3) the indicated treatment. Symptom...
-Spraying Donts
Don't wait for rose pests - spray first. Don't destroy toads or birds; they save you lots of trouble with insects. Don't mix spray materials unless you are a chemist. Don't use liquid sprays ...
-Shrubs - Cultivation
The cultivation of shrubs is rather overdone than underdone. The natural habitat of most woody plants includes a ground covering of leaves, forest mold, or herbaceous plants and grass; thus they are p...
-Rhododendrons
Rhododendrons, other broad-leaved evergreens, and conifers should be thoroughly watered during the late fall and never be allowed to freeze for the winter in a dry condition. This is more often the ca...
-Evergreens
The greatest problem in the maintenance of evergreens is that of keeping them in a healthy and vigorous condition of growth. There are certain locations where it is essential to use evergreens in orde...
-Vines
Vines require but little attention. Wood should be cut back severely in the spring on vines with ornamental fruit. Remove old canes and check any growth that becomes too rank. Shoots that are too long...
-Lawns - Fertilizing
The maintenance of lawns consists of fertilizing, rolling, watering, and mowing in order to keep the turf in such condition that few if any weeds will have an opportunity to flourish. Fertilizing of a...
-Rolling and Weeding Lawns
Rolling of lawns is not resorted to nearly as much as formerly. Probably one good, thorough rolling in the early spring is beneficial, especially on clay land which may have heaved in spots during the...
-Enemies to Lawns
Weeds are the most important enemies to lawns. The best way to eradicate weeds in a lawn that is otherwise worth saving is to dig them out, fill the holes with good topsoil, and sow fresh seed. Sprayi...
-Mowing Lawns
Mowing of lawns should be governed by the use to which the lawn is to be put. Mowing should not be very frequent in hot weather nor very long neglected at seasons when the grass is growing rapidly. Cl...
-Perennials - Winter Protection
In general, the better established a perennial is, the less winter protection it requires. However, even though plants would winter over safely if uncovered, they should be protected from the heaving ...
-Dividing Perennials, and Renovating Beds
There are some perennials which are benefited by being allowed to remain permanently in one place, such as peonies, gas plants, and bleeding-heart, but the vast majority of plants are not likely to im...
-Fertilizing Perennials and Annuals
Perennials need a great dealof food- and should have plant food to restore soil fertility. Such heavy feeders as phloxes and peonies should receive applications of bone meal and liquid manure. Such ap...
-Watering of Perennials
Watering must be attended to, especially during dry spells. One good soaking a week is much more valuable to plants than many light sprinklings which do not wet the soil to any appreciable depth. On s...
-Removing Seed Pods and General Care
Summer care of perennials consists of removing seed stems and dead flowers. It is extremely important to remove dead flowers at once, as formation of seeds weakens a plant. And with many plants, such ...
-Diseases of Perennials and Control
Perennials, taken as a class, under fairly favourable conditions are not particularly susceptible to disease. In general, when diseases attack perennial plants, the safest thing to do is to throw them...
-Maintenance of Various Kinds of Gardens
No attempt should be made to develop a garden of any kind until a careful analysis has first been made concerning the probable cost for future maintenance. This applies equally as well to the extensiv...
-Annual Flower Garden
Careful and frequent attention must be devoted to the maintenance of annuals during the growing season and especially during the flowering season if the best success is to be obtained with this type o...
-Refined Formal Garden
The refined formal garden is developed through the use of various types of perennials and annuals. The same rules apply to the general maintenance of a garden of this kind that apply to the general ma...
-Cutting Garden
The cutting garden is perhaps the most simple garden and the easiest garden to maintain. The only problem of such a garden is to provide easy access to plants placed in definite rows with sufficient s...
-Fertilizing Roses
When rose garden beds have been properly prepared by the introduction of plant food in the form of manure, bone, and lime, all that remains to be done in the way of fertilization may be easily attende...
-Chapter VIII. Winter Protection And Mulching
Reasons for Winter Protection Winter protection is necessary under the following conditions: First - When a plant is removed from its natural habitat to one more severe; Second - When plants are no...
-Sources of Winter Injury, and Remedies
One source of winter injury is a heaving in clayey soils which exposes roots of small and newly transplanted plants. This may be remedied by applying a ground mulch of straw litter or manure over the ...
-Sources of Winter Injury, and Remedies. Continued
General Conditions Fall-planted material, especially perennials, and in the heavier soils, should be well protected during the first winter with a mulch of strawy manure or hardwood leaves. Compact...
-Part II. Lists For Reference. Chapter IX. Evergreens
The variation in adaptation of evergreens has come to be a much-debated question among horticulturists and landscape architects who are called upon to use them. An interesting fact is discovered after...
-List Of Evergreens. A. Most Hardy
This group contains types of evergreens selected for general use under widely varied conditions throughout the northeastern section of the United States. Abies brachyphylla Nikko Fir Abies conco...
-B. Best Adapted for Use in Mid-West
This group of evergreens will withstand climatic and soil conditions of the mid-west, especially throughout Ohio, and under average exposure these types will develop normally in the suburban and count...
-C. Not Adapted for Use in Mid-West
Evergreens in this group should not be used in the amateur garden of this section. Experience has shown that they have proven treacherous in their ability to thrive and also in their habit of growth...
-D. Adapted to Partial Shade in Wooded Areas
The group of evergreens which will develop normal foliage and normal growth under partial shade in wooded areas is limited. The types in this group have proven the most satisfactory. Juniperus virg...
-E. Low-growing, Formal Types
This group contains types of evergreens which are valuable for accent and for specimen purposes. They should be planted on the open lawn or where there is ample space for them to develop their natural...
-Chapter X. Street And Avenue Planting
This is a broad subject and yet it has been well covered by numerous bulletins and books. There are a few important questions, however, which should be decided very definitely in the minds of those wh...
-List Of Trees For Street And Avenue Planting. A. Trees Which Are Entirely Hardy Under All Conditions
This group contains the standard types of shade trees which can be planted under almost any condition of climate or soil, with some degree of assurance that they will develop an interesting normal hab...
-C. Trees Which Should Seldom Be Used on Streets
Many trees are selected for street planting, either because they are the easiest trees to grow or the tree which can be obtained with the least difficulty and expense. Such trees are a future liabilit...
-Chapter XI. Plants For Use In Congested City Districts
The effect of dust, smoke, and gas fumes upon vegetation is well known and yet no considerable amount of study has been given to this subject, largely because it has not been considered an economic qu...
-List Of Plants For Use In Congested City Districts. A. Trees
This group contains trees which may be used with a great deal of certainty that they will thrive under city conditions of congestion and dusty atmosphere. Wherever possible, these trees, especially ev...
-B. Shrubs
In every city district the occupants of some homes desire shrubs in connection with their yards, which give a touch of nature to their places. The shrubs in this group have proven the most hardy under...
-Chapter XII. Plants For Hedges
The selection of plants for hedges forms one of the most interesting subjects in the study of use of plants. More often than for any other purpose trees and shrubs for hedges are selected either from ...
-List Of Plants For Hedges. A. Barriers
This group consists of types of plants which are compact in their habit of growth and some of which are thorny. They are excellent as barriers for two reasons: either because of their thorny character...
-B. Edgings for Walks and for Garden Borders
The plants in this group are either dwarf in their habit of growth or can be pruned severely in order to keep them in a low, compact form. The average height at which these hedges may be maintained is...
-C. Windbreaks and Solid Screens
Most of the trees and shrubs in this group are rapid growing and are entirely hardy under normal climatic conditions. They can be planted in close proximity to each other without injuring the individu...
-D. For Privacy
These types are selected because of their ability to develop a compact, heavy foliage effect and most of these types retain their foliage during the late summer and early fall months. Acer sacchari...
-E. Hedges for Bleak Exposures
These plants are hardy as far north as the Canadian northwest and will survive under extreme exposure. This group has been subdivided in order more clearly to differentiate between plants which should...
-Chapter XIII. Plants For Border Planting
A very important question in the proper development of a lawn is how to give it a background and suitable enclosure of trees and shrubs. This chapter is especially concerned with the types of shrubs w...
-List Of Plants For Border Planting. A. Masses for Refined Lawn Areas
This group consists of both low-growing and tall-growing types of shrubs, mostly of a hardy foliage type, neat in the habit of their growth, compact in the texture of their foliage, and comparatively ...
-B. Masses Consisting Mostly of Native Collected Shrubs
This group consists mostly of shrubs which are indigenous to the section of the country where they are used. These plants are adapted to plantations on a large or small scale, where a feeling of forma...
-Chapter XIV. Accent And Specimen Trees And Shrubs
There are two kinds of specimen plants, those which are used as single specimens, with full space allowed for their normal development, and those which are used as accent plants in masses of border pl...
-List Of Accent And Specimen Trees And Shrubs
The types of plants in these two groups are sometimes used in large masses as specimens or as accent plants. The best effect as specimens is obtained when they are used singly and as accent plants whe...
-Chapter XV. Plants Valuable For Use In Rock Gardens, In Japanese Gardens, And In Wall Crevices
A fully developed estate to-day is not complete without an interesting rock garden, not because it gives an interesting physical variety to the landscape, but because it provides an opportunity for th...
-List Of Plants Valuable For Use In Rock Gardens, In Japanese Gardens, And In Wall Crevices. A. Evergreens
In every garden development of this kind, a touch of evergreen foliage, the texture of which is peculiar to evergreen plantings, is essential to lend the desired interest to the garden. These evergree...
-B. Deciduous Trees and Shrubs
Trees used in gardens of this kind must be the low-growing types with a compact habit of growth, and the shrubs also must be types which will lend themselves readily to the character of this kind of g...
-C. Perennials
This group of plants forms one of the most interesting phases of rock garden development. Most of these perennials are either heavy in their texture of foliage, or very dwarf in their habit of growth....
-Chapter XVI. Plants For Heavy Formal Effects
While many trees and shrubs in the hands of expert designers and gardeners may be used interchangeably for either formal or informal effects, the fact still remains that there is a group of plants whi...
-List Of Plants For Heavy Formal Effects. A. Border Planting
This group of trees and shrubs is composed of those specimens which either lend themselves to a natural, compact effect when pruned, or which possess an even, close habit of growth, fitting them parti...
-B. Topiary Work and Close Shearing
The plants in these two groups (a and b) are selected because they will adapt themselves, with careful attention, to close shearing and interesting topiary work. There are many plants which if sheared...
-C. Growing in Tubs
One of the most successful sources of obtaining refinement of detail in formal work is through the use of plants grown in tubs. These are particularly adapted to terraces, areas around pools, and plac...
-D. Trees and Shrubs for Allees
All plants which are adapted to allee effects must be of a type which will respond to the operations of severe pruning. Those plants in Group a must have a special adaptation for a spreading habit of ...
-Chapter XVII. Plants For Natural, Informal Effects
As contrasted with plants adapted to heavy or compact formal effects the plants of this group have a more open, looser habit of growth. They are apt to be not quite as refined in character in some ins...
-List Of Plants For Natural, Informal Effects
It is difficult to define the effects which it is intended to produce through the use of plants included in this list. In general, these Plants For Natural, Informal Effects 149 plants are selected be...
-Chapter XVIII. Low-Growing Plants Along The Inner Side Of Curving Roadways And At Entrances
Plants which are selected for use in this group must have a normally low-growing habit. In general, their maximum height should approximate not more than five to six feet. If the eventual height of...
-List Of Low-Growing Plants Along The Inner Side Of Curving Roadways And At Entrances
The plants in this group are selected because of their low-growing habit. Many other specimens may be used, which under the care of an expert gardener can be kept within definite bounds. Where open vi...
-Chapter XIX. Trees And Shrubs For Different Flowering Effects
Perhaps the most important use of plants is for the effect of the flowers. At least ninety per cent. of those who develop landscape plantations have foremost in their minds the effect that is to be pr...
-List Of Trees And Shrubs For Different Flowering Effects. A. Producing Flowers in Early Spring Before the Leaves Appear
The trees and shrubs included in this group produce, when in bloom, a very interesting colour note in a landscape which has been uninteresting during the winter months. Most of these plants produce th...
-B. Producing Flowers in Early Spring After the Leaves Appear
Through a careful selection of plants the season of bloom from flowering trees and shrubs can be made almost continuous. There are many trees and shrubs which flower during the early spring after the ...
-C. Producing Flowers During Early Summer
The largest group of flowering trees and shrubs is that containing the types which flower during the early summer months. Carefully selected groupings of these plants may produce a continuous flower e...
-D. Producing Flowers During Late Summer and Early Autumn
There are comparatively few trees and shrubs which produce an interesting flowering effect during the late summer months and during the early autumn. This group is composed of those plants whose flowe...
-E. Producing Flowers in Shades of Red and Pink
In the development of interesting colour combinations for the flowers in landscape planting some definite association of colour schemes should be listed to assist one more readily in the selection of ...
-F. Producing Yellow Flowers
Until the trees and shrubs producing yellow flowers are grouped the reader can hardly appreciate how great is the wealth of this material. The group is divided, as are the preceding groups in the chap...
-G. Producing White Flowers
This group of plants is subdivided in the same way as are the two preceding groups, and consists only of those plants producing white flowers in sufficient quantity and size to be an effective element...
-H. Producing Blue Flowers
The group of plants producing blue flowers is extremely limited. A few plants which are shown in this list are extremely interesting for their flowering effect and with the exception of the rose of Sh...
-I. Continuous Bloom from Twelve Shrubs
The reader should be able to refer to some list such as the following, which will provide him with a ready reference for the selection of shrubs giving a succession of bloom. The plants in this group,...
-Chapter XX. Plants Valuable For The Characteristics Of Their Fruit
The charm of many landscape plantings during fall and early winter months is due almost entirely to the interesting effects produced by the fruit of various trees, shrubs, and vines. Too little attent...
-List Of Plants Valuable For The Characteristics Of Their Fruit. A. Producing Fruit of Peculiarly Interesting Form or Size
This group consists of types of plants which produce fruit that has a landscape value on account of its peculiarly interesting form and size. Practically all of our trees and shrubs produce fruit, but...
-B. Producing Fruit Valuable for Its Colour Effects
The colour effect of fruit may be equally as effective as the colour effect of flowers. Some fruit is effective as a combination of colour against the background of green foliage. Other fruit is effec...
-C. Producing Fruit Valuable During the Winter Months
The group of trees and shrubs which retain interesting fruit well into the winter months is comparatively limited. A few of these plants should be in every landscape planting to give a touch of colour...
-Plants Used For Attracting Birds
It is often advisable, in the making of landscape plantings, to use trees and shrubs which possess ornamental values from a landscape viewpoint, and which also produce fruit that attracts various spec...
-D. Producing Fruit Valuable for Attracting Birds
There are numerous species of trees, shrubs, and vines, which are not only useful in a decorative way, but also add much to the interest of a place, attracting the birds by their fruit. Plants found i...
-E. Producing Fruit Which Attracts Birds Away From Other Fruit
Mulberries and shad-bushes will protect cherries and strawberries. Elders, Virginia creeper, and black cherry will protect grapes. Elders and mulberries will protect raspberries and blackberries. F...
-Chapter XXI. Trees And Shrubs Bearing Coloured Twigs
The trees and shrubs in the following list are those whose twigs are coloured sufficiently to make them of value from a landscape standpoint. The colour effect of twigs may be interesting from two poi...
-List Of Trees And Shrubs Bearing Coloured Twigs
This list consists of types of plants which are extremely interesting because of the colour effect of their twigs. A memorandum is indicated opposite each type showing the special colour effect which ...
-Chapter XXII. Plants Valuable Because Of The Autumn Colouration Of The Leaves
One of the most charming features of our northern landscapes, especially through the northeastern United States where such a great variety of deciduous trees are indigenous, is the autumn colouration ...
-List Of Plants Valuable Because Of The Autumn Colouration Of The Leaves
The plants in the following three groups have been separated and grouped because of the interesting colour effects of the foliage. The most important factor in selecting plants for the autumn colourat...
-C. Late
a. Coloured foliage. Acer platanoides (green) Norway Maple Cladrastis lutea (yellow) Yellow-wood Cornus florida (scarlet) Flowering Dogwood Evonymus alatus (scarlet) Cork-barked Burning Bu...
-Chapter XXIII. Fast-Growing Types Valuable For Producing Screen Effects
It often becomes necessary to find some fast-growing type of tree or shrub to produce an immediate screen. This is especially true in the development of new landscapes where a foliage effect is desire...
-List Of Fast-Growing Types Valuable For Producing Screen Effects
These groups contain the very fastest growing and most temporary types of trees and shrubs, and the more rapid-growing types of trees and shrubs often used in permanent plantings. Material may be sele...
-Chapter XXIV. Plants Adapted To Various Types Of Soil Conditions
A very important factor in determining the sorts of plants adapted to any specific location is the soil type. By soil type is meant the relative acidity or alkalinity of the soil elements, the relativ...
-List Of Plants Adapted To Various Types Of Soil Conditions. A. Boggy and Peaty Soils
Plants in this group have proved their ability to thrive under extremely wet conditions in boggy or peaty types of soil. The evergreens in this group should never be planted in a soil containing limes...
-B. Light, Sandy Soils
This group contains many hardy types of trees and shrubs which seem to flourish under poor soil conditions. In general they have a deep root system which enables them to obtain moisture and food mater...
-C. Heavy Types of Soils
Most of the plants in this group are not of a deep-rooted type and are better adapted for use in the heavy types of soil. These plants, under normal conditions, should be planted in heavy clay soil wh...
-D. Trees Tolerant of Alkali Soils
Trees which are used in this type of soil should be extremely vigorous in their habit of growth. There is no special reason which can be set forth, from a physiological standpoint as a guide, for sele...
-E. Drought-resisting Plants
The ability of some plants to resist drought lies not in their ability to extract more water than other plants from the same soil, as commonly supposed, but in their ability to send deep roots after w...
-Chapter XXV. Plants For Exposed Lake Front And River Conditions
We have often noticed plantations along exposed lake fronts and river fronts where normal development seems to have been greatly retarded and a considerable loss from winter-killing has been experienc...
-List Of Plants For Exposed Lake Front And River Conditions
The plants in Groups A, B, and C of this list include the hardy types of trees and shrubs. All of these types have been known to thrive under the severe exposures of lake shore and river frontage thro...
-Chapter XXVI. Trees And Shrubs For Seaside Planting
A peculiar situation exists in the relative hardiness of trees and shrubs for seaside exposures. Plants which are entirely hardy on exposed river front and fresh water locations are apt not to thrive ...
-List Of Trees And Shrubs For Seaside Planting. A. Plants Hardy Under the Severe Exposure of the North Atlantic Coast
Our only safe guide in the selection of plant types for the extreme exposures along the northeast coast is the experience of those who have endeavoured to acclimate a wide range of plant materials. Th...
-B. Plants Hardy in the Less Severe Seaside Exposures
Under the less severe conditions of seaside exposure there is a greater range of plants which may be used in addition to those shown under Group A. Most of the material in this part of the list is not...
-Chapter XXVII. Plants For Partially Shaded Locations
It often becomes necessary to make a selection of the lower-growing trees and shrubs to be planted in partially shaded situations. This condition may be brought about by the location of buildings, by ...
-List Of Plants For Partially Shaded Locations
As contrasted with the plants listed under Chapter XXVIII (Plants For Undergrowth Planting In Wooded Areas), most of the types in this list are adapted for use on the refined lawn areas where fruit an...
-Chapter XXVIII. Plants For Undergrowth Planting In Wooded Areas
The plants which most successfully fill the requirements for undergrowth planting are our native woodland species. These requirements are mainly the ability to succeed in partial or dense shade and al...
-List Of Plants For Undergrowth Planting In Wooded Areas
Most of the plants contained in this list can be collected from the fields and woods. The larger plants are valuable as background for wild garden planting and for undergrowth planting in wooded areas...
-Chapter XXIX. Plants For Ground Cover
Ground-cover plants are distinctly valuable for a use covered by the literal interpretation of the word. The conditions which they overcome may not be unsightly or entirely barren. Their general use i...
-List Of Plants For Ground Cover. A. Moist Locations
This group of plants is adapted for locations where the soil conditions are apt to be continually moist. There are some perennials which will not thrive and will rot where the ground is continually mo...
-B. Dry Locations
The plants in the following group are especially adapted for growing on slopes which are continuously more or less dry. The heavy foliage of the plants often forms a ground cover which conserves the m...
-C. Shady Locations
The following group of plants contains only the most common types which have proved successful for ground cover under large trees and in heavily shaded situations on lawns. It is best for most of thes...
-D. Ferns
There is a great variety of ferns adapted for use in different types of soil, both as a ground cover in the open and more dry shaded places and also in the locations where the ground is continually mo...
-E. Embankments and Rocky Slopes
This group consists mostly of vines and scrambling types of shrubs, together with a very few interesting hardy perennials. Banks and rocky slopes do not generally retain a considerable amount of moist...
-G. Perennials Adapted to Open, Sunny Exposures
This small list contains perennials which will withstand extreme exposure to the sun. Most of these plants will thrive on a light, sandy soil. Armeria maritima Sea Thrift Cerastium tomentosum ...
-H. Ground Cover Among Rhododendrons and Azaleas
This group contains plants which are excellently adapted to the same kind of soil and the same kind of treatment as are the types of rhododendrons and azaleas with which they are used. Many of these p...
-I. Ground Cover Among Roses
Many persons object to the bare ground existing among roses. For the best success in growing roses every opportunity should be provided for cultivating the area around each rosebush. During a portion ...
-Chapter XXX. Game Cover Plants
When selecting ground-cover plants and undergrowth plants for locations which are naturally attractive to birds, especially the game birds, it is possible to provide a more inviting sanctuary for th...
-List Of Game Cover Plants
The following group of plants are valuable for use as ground cover where there is also a chance to provide suitable shelters for game birds, especially grouse. These groups are: (A) Plants of which th...
-Chapter XXXI. Perennials For Different Purposes
Whether to use annuals or perennials, what perennials to use for different flowering effects, and how to take care of the perennial garden are important questions, the correct answers to which make fo...
-Trees, and Their Effect on the Flower Garden
The old saying is true, either the flower effect of the garden or the quantity of flowers cut for house use must be greatly reduced if the same garden is to serve two purposes. It is also true that tr...
-Trees, and Their Effect on the Flower Garden. Continued
In the use of perennials another problem is often met: that of selecting proper types for planting at the water's edge. These plants must be of the kind that will thrive with their feet in water. Th...
-List Of Perennials For Different Purposes. A. Types of Hardy Perennials for General Use
For the average person who is developing a small garden a knowledge of some of the standard types of hardy perennials, which are well adapted for general use, will often meet the requirements. This gr...
-B. Perennials According to Colour and Season
This, with its sub-groups, is an interesting group. The division of seasons in these groups is merely relative and is made for the purpose of obtaining some relationship in the succession of bloom thr...
-C. Perennials for Naturalizing in Wild Garden Areas
This group contains two sub-groups showing types of perennials which are valuable for naturalizing in wild garden areas. Most of these plants will thrive in the open sun, as contrasted with the preced...
-D. Perennials for Long Flowering Period
Not only are perennials selected because of the colours of the flowers and other characteristics such as good blooming combinations, perpetual bloom, and good flowers, as shown in the following groups...
-E. Perennials Seldom Used in Small, Refined, Formal Gardens
This group contains a few types which should be consistently avoided in the development of a small, formal flower garden, where refinement of detail is the main requirement. These plants, when not giv...
-G. Perennials for Use Among Peonies
When peonies have completed their period of flowering there remains during the balance of the season a mass of green foliage which can often be made much more interesting by the addition of a few type...
-H. Perennials for Good Blooming Combinations
The following group contains interesting combinations of perennials which, if planted together, will produce in each case a pleasing colour effect. The perennial garden is valuable for two effects: ei...
-I. Perennials Valuable for Cut Flowers
The perennial cut-flower garden should provide an abundance of cut flowers. Most of the perennials in this group will provide flowers which can be cut for house use and which have lasting qualities. T...
-J. Perennials Which Should Be Treated as Biennials
There are certain plants generally known as perennials which will run out in the average garden after a period of two to three years. They may still continue to grow, but after the first two years t...
-K. Perennials to be Transplanted Frequently
There are certain perennials which require special attention for their best development. The perennials in this group should be taken up, divided, and replanted every two or three years, as they grow ...
-L. Perennials for Water Planting
In the development of informal and formal pools the following group provides a ready reference for interesting types of perennials adapted for use in water gardens. For growing in wet soil along strea...
-N. Perennials for Attracting Humming Birds
Humming birds have long bills and hollow tongues which permit them to search for insects and honey in their favourite flowers. By planting some of the following sorts of perennials, as well as the tru...
-Chapter XXXII. Annuals
No garden is complete without its quota of annuals. The so-called perennial garden, to be really successful, must be supplemented each year with a quantity of annuals, especially if the garden is to b...
-List Of Annuals. A. Annuals Especially Valuable for Cut Flowers
The group of annuals which are valuable for cut flowers is much greater than might be anticipated. This group is comprehensive and those plants which are marked with a star (*) are the most interestin...
-B. Annuals to Be Sown for Ground Cover
Often along the edges of borders in the garden, or in otherwise bare spots, a small ground cover of annuals to produce a carpet of flowers may be desired. This often happens at the edge of shrubbery w...
-C. Annuals Which Are Difficult to Transplant Successfully
This group contains annuals which should be sown in the place where they are expected to remain. The only work which should be done to them after sowing is to thin them out in order to give the indivi...
-D. Annuals Which Should Be Planted in Several Sowings to Insure a Succession of Bloom
To provide a succession of bloom with annuals those included in the following group should be sown in two or three successive plantings. Very few annual seeds should be sown after the hot summer weath...
-E. Annuals to Be Started Indoors in Order to Produce Bloom Before Frost
For the best results and for early summer flowers, the annuals in this group should be started in hot frames or greenhouses and transplanted in the very early spring, as soon as the danger of frost is...
-F. Annual Vines
While the more permanent perennial types of woody vines are developing during the first two or three years after transplanting it is often desirable to fill the bare spaces on fences and walls with th...
-G. Plants for Carpet Bedding
Carpet bedding as a part of design in landscape planting has a specific place and is used for a specific purpose. This type of planting lends itself to extremely formal areas throughout parks and arou...
-H. Annuals for Design Bedding
Oftentimes in the development of the flower garden the owner wishes for a massing of annual flowering plants to produce certain definite outlines. The amateur in selecting types for such effects will ...
-Chapter XXXIII. Horticultural Varieties
The great variations among plants and flowers that to most people seem very much alike should become better known both for the enjoyment this study yields and for its educational and cultural value. T...
-Select Lists Of Horticultural Varieties
The question of publishing special lists of the more standard horticultural varieties may be open to some criticism. These lists are interesting for reference. The writer has therefore compiled the fo...
-Select Lists Of Horticultural Varieties. Continued
Hybrids Album elegans (light blush) Album grandiflora (light blush) Alexander Dancer (light rose) Atrosanguineum (blood red early) Caractacus (rich purplish crimson) Charles Bagley (cherry red, lat...
-Species
Rhododendron maximum (white to pink June to July - tall) Rhododendron catazobiense (lilac to purple) Rhododendron catawbiense album (white) Rhododendron carolinianum (rose June) Best dwarf Rhodo...
-Table Of Lilies
Key Trade Or Nursery Catalogue Name Season Of Bloom Type Of Flower Colour Of Flower Average Height * o ...
-Chapter XXXIV. Vines
Vines constitute a small but important group of plants possessing certain characteristics which are very valuable for use in landscape design. The annual vines develop to maturity and must be started ...
-List Of Vines
The vines included in the groups of this list are respectively valuable for their ability to produce flowers, for their use on brick and stone masonry, for foliage effect, for fruiting characteristics...
-Chapter XXXV. Window Boxes And Hanging Baskets
Strictly speaking, window boxes do not come under the category of planting or designing the grounds, but in a vital way they serve to tie the house to the lawn and gardens and thus help to produce the...
-A. Window Boxes
The following group of plants are those adapted for window boxes in varying exposures of sunlight. These plants should not be placed in window boxes which cannot be thoroughly drained unless great car...
-B. Hanging Baskets
The group of plants adapted for use in hanging baskets is much larger than might at first be anticipated. The great danger in the cultivation of plants in hanging baskets is the danger of drying out. ...
-Chapter XXXVI. Bulbs
This is a type of planting which can provide as many interesting flower effects as any annual, perennial, or shrub planting. It is the type of planting that provides flowers at a period of the year fr...
-List Of Bulbs. A. Refined Lawn and Garden Areas
This group contains only the standard types and varieties of bulbs from which to select material for the average planting. There are hundreds of varieties of bulbs which may be used with more or less ...
-B. Naturalizing in Woodland and Wild Gardens
Bulbs valuable for naturalization in woodland and wild garden areas must be of the kind which will continue to increase without further care than is ordinarily given to such an area. All of the materi...
-C. Narcissi for Different Locations
In moist, well-drained loam use the large trumpet types. In heavier, damper, lower ground use the poeticus and double gardenia-flowered form. In warmer climates, on damp, moist soil, use the double da...
-D. Tulip Combinations
The most interesting effect can be obtained from the planting of tulips when study and thought are given to the colour effects of the flowers. Many interesting plantings of tulips have been completely...
-E. Best Varieties for Forcing
The following bulbs are good varieties for forcing. A few kinds (see Group b) will flower if kept in bowls of water with enough pebbles to hold them upright. a. Forcing in soil. Tulips - early s...
-Chapter XXXVII. Fragrant Plants
The group of trees, shrubs, and perennials whose flowers or leaves are fragrant is an important group in the development of an interesting variation in landscape plantings, especially on the larger pl...
-List Of Fragrant Plants. A. Fragrant Flowers
The plants in this group are valuable because of the fragrance of their flowers. It is an interesting fact that many species of the same genus are not equally valuable because of the flower fragrance....
-B. Fragrant Leaves
This is a small but very interesting group of plants. Most produce an attractive odour from the leaves either growing on the plant, or dried and crushed. a. Trees and shrubs: Benzoin aestivale ...
-Chapter XXXVIII. Poisonous Plants
The increase in the number of country homes that are being built on new land makes important an understanding of the common poisonous plants which are likely to occur and which should not be collect...
-List Of Poisonous Plants
Poisonous plants may be divided into two groups: A. Plants which if taken internally either cause irritation or poison the blood. B. Skin irritants. The majority of the plants in the first group are m...
-C. Causing Hay Fever
East of the 100th meridian in the United States ninety per cent, of the cases of hay fever are caused by the common ragweed {Ambrosia elatior) while in the Rocky Mountain and Pacific states the sage b...
-Chapter XXXIX. Ornamental Plants Subject To Disease And Insect Pests
The purpose of the list of plants given below is not to discourage any prospective planter, even though the list is a formidable one, nor to catalogue all the ornamental plants which may be affected b...
-List Of Ornamental Plants Subject To Disease And Insect Pests
Not all trees are equally seriously affected by insect pests and in the list below where a long list of insects and diseases are given after a plant name it does not signify that all those insects and...
-Chapter XL. Plants Difficult To Transplant And Those Adapted For Transplanting At Specific Seasons Of The Year
The fact is well appreciated that of all our great range of material used in landscape plantings there are a certain number of these species and varieties which are better adapted to being transplante...
-List Of Plants Adapted For Transplanting At Specific Seasons Of The Year
Under excellent care, good results may be attained by transplanting all plants during the fall planting season, or during the spring planting season. For the best results, however, it is advisable to ...
-C. Plants Which Are Transplanted with Little Success
a. Plants to be rarely if ever transplanted. Some plants, especially if collected from the wild, seldom survive the shock of transplanting. Some plants, like the beeches, must be entirely dormant if t...
-Chapter XLI. Shrubs For Forcing In Water In Early Spring
Before winter has gone and the warm days of early spring cause our early-flowering shrubs to mature some very interesting flowers may be developed indoors on twigs of such plants. These flowers, the h...
-List Of Shrubs For Forcing In Water In Early Spring
Generally speaking, flowers of all early-blooming shrubs, flowering upon wood of previous season, can be forced. The branches may be cut any time after January; but the best results are obtained when ...
-Chapter XLII. Pruning Requirements
The question of the necessary pruning required by various trees and shrubs is a natural one. Many persons are under the impression that every tree and shrub requires a certain amount of pruning each y...
-Pruning Lists. A. Shrubs Needing Complete Pruning
a. Spring and early summer-flowering: Benzoin aestivale Spice Bush Berberis thunbergi Thunberg's Japanese Barberry Cephalanthus occidentalis Button Bush Cercis canadensis Red-bud Chi...
-B. Shrubs Needing Removal of Old Wood Only
a. Summer pruning: Caragana Pea Shrub Daphne Deciduous Daphne Halesia Silver Bell Koelreuteria Varnish Tree Laburnum vulgare Golden Chain Lonicera tatarica Tartarian Honeysuckle ...
-Chapter XLIII. Plants For Florida
The following compilation covers information concerning plants used for different landscape purposes in the Florida zones. Some of these plants are followed by the letter (T) which indicates that such...
-List Of Plants For Florida. A. Windbreaks
It is often necessary in many locations, especially along the water fronts, to plant windbreaks that will preserve the more tender types of plants and which will preserve the lighter soils against hea...
-B. Trees for Street and Specimen Planting
a. Northern list: This group of trees covers material which can be used throughout northern Florida, southern Georgia, Alabama, and over the area which is known as the Coastal Plain. In general, this ...
-C. Vines
The first part of this group consists of those vines which are commonly known as scrambling vines and which must be provided with a definite support on which they can twine or to which tendrils can at...
-D. Shrubs with Attractive Fruit
The following is a group of shrubs which are of value in Florida plantations because of their fruiting characteristics, especially during the winter months. Quite different from similar shrubs in nort...
-E. Hedges
For hedge planting there is in Florida a wider range of material adapted to such use than is ordinarily found in northern types of material. The first group given includes those shrubs which make low,...
-F. Flowering Shrubs for Middle and Southern Florida
The following is a group of shrubs of more refined habit of growth which are adapted to middle and southern Florida. Those shrubs which are marked (+) are in flower during the winter months and are es...
-G. Ground-cover Plants
This list contains a group of vines which are interesting for ground cover in partially shaded situations. Most of these vines are evergreen in their habit of foliage and are of value for covering ban...
-H. Shrubs for Shady Conditions
The following is a group of shrubs most of which are evergreen in their foliage characteristics, and all of which are adapted for plantations in partial shade, either under large trees or on the north...
-I. Herbaceous Plants
This group includes plants many of which are semi-woody in character and which fundamentally are known as herbaceous stock. There is still a great opportunity to introduce a number of the northern typ...
-J. Plants for Seashore Planting
Peculiar as it may seem, along the shores of the larger lakes, and along the seashore particularly, the group of plants which can be used is restricted to those plants which are particularly adapted t...
-Chapter XLIV. Plants For Minnesota
The lists given in this chapter cover the more common uses for which plants are selected. Perennial lists are not given because perennial plantings succeed according to the skill of the grower in adap...
-List Of Plants For Minnesota. A. Hedges
Owing to the severe exposure to which a hedge may be subjected only small groups can be recommended as entirely ironclad. No broad-leaved evergreens can be listed and only the most hardy sorts of co...
-B. Ground Cover
No evergreen ground-cover plants seem to prove hardy in the region covered by this list, and so the plants given are confined to deciduous shrubs and vines. Perennials can be used in proportion to the...
-C. Plants Valuable for Autumn Colouration of Leaves
Only plants which show good autumn colour, either at an early or medium season, prove valuable in this region since late colour is invariably destroyed by hard freezes. a. Early: Acer negundo Bo...
-D. Heavy, Formal Effects
Either due to the prevalence of ice storms which break them down or to their inherent lack of hardiness, most of the plants which are elsewhere available for heavy, formal effects are not available in...
-E. Street Trees
The group of trees (a) given as entirely hardy is interesting for the following reasons: The American linden, here substituted for the European linden - which is of doubtful hardiness - is not ordinar...
-F. Evergreens Most Used
The group of conifers most used in Minnesota is restricted to a few of the ironclad sorts. These are all native species and when used the following notes should be borne in mind. The hemlock is not ...
-G. Not Hardy in Minnesota
The following group contains plants which are not hardy when used in the Minnesota section. These plants are generally in one of three groups: the early spring-flowering types, the broad-leaved and te...
-Chapter XLV. Plants For South Atlantic States
The territory for which this list has been prepared comprises that lying between the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the Appalachian foothills or Piedmont on the west, and extending from Washington, D....
-List Of Plants For South Atlantic States. A. Ground Cover
This group of plants for ground cover is more restricted than the group including plants available for use farther north. This is due to the fact that many herbaceous perennials do not succeed in the ...
-B. Hedges
The following groups include mostly plants which are distinctive in this region or are not available for use farther north. This is especially true of the evergreen list. a. Holding leaves througho...
-C. Trees for Street Planting
This group comprises only those street trees which are most likely to produce the best results under normal conditions. Aesculus indica Himalayan Horse-chestnut Aesculus octandra Sweet Buckeye ...
-D. Evergreens Most Used
The climate of the south Atlantic states (Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama) provides an opportunity to use the broad-leaved evergreens in great profusion as well as certa...
-E. Formal Effects
The plants in this group are mostly trees of a compact, upright habit of growth, and are useful as exclamation points and for marking axes in formal gardens. Catalpa bungei Round-leaved Catalp...
-F. Border Planting
As most plants, when used in the south Atlantic states, double their northern height, the problem is to find low-growers. The following groups have thus been confined to low-growing plants (below five...
-G. Fruit Valuable for Its Colour Effects
The following plants bear fruit which makes them useful for ornamental planting. The group comprises mainly those species which are better adapted to southern conditions. Arbutus unedo Strawberry T...
-H. Specimen Trees and Shrubs
The following groups comprise only plants which are most successful when used singly or in small groups. a. Trees Albizzia julibrissin Mimosa Aleurites fordi China Wood-oil Tree Aphananthe...
-I. Perennials for Gardens and Cut Flowers
The following group of perennials includes several plants, such as the gladiolus, which are not hardy in the open ground in winter in the north. Most of the plants are the same sorts which are used el...
-J. Perennials for Naturalizing in Wild Gardens
The plants in this group are common sorts which after trial have proven adaptable and useful for naturalizing in this territory. This group could be considerably enlarged; but the species named will f...
-K. Plants Which Are Commonly and Freely Used in the South but Are Not Hardy Farther North
This group comprises trees and shrubs which are valuable and may be used in the south with safety, but which are not hardy in the north. a. Trees: Albizzia julibrissin Mimosa Aleurites fordi ...
-L. Vines for the South
There is an extensive group of vines which can be used throughout the far south. Many of the vines so common to the north are extremely valuable because of their added growth during the longer growing...
-Chapter XLVI. Plants For Use On The Oregon And Washington Coastal Plain
The planting districts in the northwest are very sharply defined. They include (I) the West Slope; that is, between the coast and the mountains, or west of the Cascade Range, and (2) eastern and centr...
-A
-B
Plate LIV. The knotweed is not only one of the most rapid-growing vines, but its abundance of delicate white flowers and its long-blooming period make it valuable for many locations on the lattice fra...
-List Of Plants For Use On The Oregon And Washington Coastal Plain. A. Hedges
This group is divided into deciduous and evergreen plants. It is noteworthy by reason of the fact that there are more broad-leaved plants than deciduous ones. This is not the case in other portions of...
-B. Plants for Ground Cover
Practically all of these ground-coyer plants are evergreen in character; both those adapted to the open sun and those given for use in the shade. No attempt has been made to name the herbaceous perenn...
-C. Plants for Border Planting
The shrubs and trees given in the group for refined lawn masses are confined largely to those sorts which are not generally available throughout the east for border planting by reason of their soil an...
-D. Street and Avenue Planting
This group with the exception of the Oregon maple and the thornless locust is practically identical with a similar group for any portion of the northern and eastern states. Acer macrophyllum Oregon...
-E. Plants for Heavily Shaded Locations
This group contains only plants native to this portion of the country and some of the better known plants given in previous lists. Abies balsamea Balsam Fir Calycanthus floridus Strawberry Shrub...
-F. Plants Valuable for Autumn Colouration of Leaves
The plants in this group are selected for their use to furnish colour in the landscape in autumn and special attention is called to the vine maple and Oregon dogwood which are not available in other s...
-G. Vines
This group of vines is very similar to the group previously given and shows the large number of species which are available in this territory. Ampelopsis engelmanni Englemann's Ampelopsis Ampelo...
-H. Evergreens Most Used
Among the plants grouped here will be found many coniferous and broad-leaved evergreens which it is not safe to use as far north as this in any other portion of the United States. Among these, in part...
-Bibliography
The following is a compilation of the more important practical books on various subjects relating to landscape plantings and of interest to the gardener and to the owner of private estates. An effort ...
-Articles Pruning (Ornamental Flowering Trees, Shrubs, Vines, And Perennials)
Title Of Article Author Magazine Reference Date Winter Pruning and Spraying Rockwell American Homes and Gardens ...
-Articles - Miscellaneous
Title Of Article Author Magazine Reference Date The Best Hardy Conifers Wilson Garden Magazine Dec, 191...
-Glossary
The author has attempted in this glossary to compile a set of terms or words commonly used in landscape literature pertaining to general planting design. Landscape architecture is one of the younger p...
-Glossary. Part 2
Ball In transplanting work it is the mass of earth containing the roots of a plant, and it is transplanted with the plant to its new location. Ball-and-Burlap The process of covering a ball o...
-Glossary. Part 3
Collected Stock Plants which have been taken from their native habitat and shipped direct from the collecting ground to the new location. These require more care and are subject to greater loss tha...
-Glossary. Part 4
Drainage for plants The carrying away of excess water from the soil in which plants are placed. This drainage promotes a deep root system, which aids the plant in surviving periods of drought; it a...
-Glossary. Part 5
Forcing The acceleration of growth by gradually increasing temperature, water supply, and quickly available plant food such as sodium nitrate. Frame See Cold frame or Hot-bed. Fresh-burned...
-Glossary. Part 6
Hedge A row composed of living plants usually in a straight line and planted closely to each other (See Plate XV, Page 95). Hedgerow A hedge or fence of bushes or shrubs either in the form of...
-Glossary. Part 7
Larva The immature wingless, worm-like form in which insects (which undergo metamorphosis) have their first stage or stages before acquiring wings. Leaching In soils; the loss, through soluti...
-Glossary. Part 8
Mulch A surface covering about the base of plants to prevent or retard evaporation of moisture from the soil, and prevent sudden freezing and thawing in the soil. Dead leaves, straw, manure, etc., ...
-Glossary. Part 9
Perennial Plants growing year after year. Properly includes trees and shrubs; but in practice the term is limited to those plants which have no persistent stem above ground, but do nevertheless gro...
-Glossary. Part 10
Root-bound A term used in speaking of any plant whose root system cannot develop further because confined to a limited area. Thus, when the root system of a potted plant has filled the pot the plan...
-Glossary. Part 11
Spore A minute portion of a fungus capable of germinating and growing into a new fungus. Sport An unusual variation from the normal type as commonly demonstrated in habits of growth and quali...
-Glossary. Part 12
Topiary Work The cutting and trimming of shrubs and trees, especially evergreens, into odd or ornamental shapes, thus producing an effect entirely different from that produced by the natural growin...
-Glossary. Part 13
Vase Form In a plant, a manner of growth where the top springs from a single stem and spreads outward toward the top as the shape commonly taken by the American elm when growing in the open. For he...









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