The foundation of all is the soil. Carnations are grown in different kinds of soil and often in a very indifferent kind. Whether it be a yellow loam or the dark, fat soil of the prairie, it should be from a grass or clover pasture or sod ploughed up four inches deep in October and stacked up with a fourth its bulk (not weight) of cow or horse manure. In the spring this should be chopped and turned over and by the time it is again moved over in filling the houses it will be thoroughly mixed. The bone dust or ashes is usually added after the soil is in the houses. Another plan is to select a piece of sod and plough it at the end of September and let it lie so all winter. In the spring spread a good dressing of manure and again plough and well harrow; another ploughing and harrowing will put it in good condition for the house. A pound of bone meal to a bushel of soil is not over strong. "Wood ashes are often given as a light dressing during winter. Liquid manure is of great benefit after the benches are crowded with roots, either from horse, cow, sheep or chicken manure, bearing in mind their relative strength, and always being on the safe side. Overfeeding may produce large flowers and long stems but of poor substance, the flowers soon wilting and closing after being cut.