A bed of shrubs that pleased me very much this summer was very gay near the entrance of our Forest Lawn cemetery. The center was the common purple barberry with an edging of the golden philadelphus. Another bed was Prunus Pissardii surrounded with the variegated cornus. In large grounds masses of one species are often planted, but in private grounds the mixed collection of shrubs is most desirable, for with a proper selection there are always some in flower. But the flower is only a part of their beauty. I cannot afford space to give more than a list of the very best shrubs, in recommending any of which you will not go wrong, and here they are:
Althaea in several varieties.
Berberis vulgaris and Thunbergii.
Cornus (dogwood), several species. The variegated cornus is one of the best of all variegated shrubs.
Cydonia (Pyrus) Japonica.
Deutzia crenata, gracilis and scabra.
Forsythia, several species; the earliest shrub in flower.
Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora; there are two or-three new species of this type, all fine.
Ligustrum (privet); the Calif ornian ovalifolium is most desirable.
Lonicera Tatarica, Tartarian honeysuckle.
Magnolias; these are dwarf trees and deserve a place on the lawn alone, where they can show off their great beauty; several species.
Philadelphus grandiflorus; the mock orange.
Rhus cotinus, purple fringe.
Rhus glabra laciniata, the cut-leaved sumach, a most beautiful shrub or dwarf tree.
Sambucus aurea, or golden elder. Most showy in early summer.
Spiraea; this large genus has given us some of our finest flowering shrubs. Billardii, bumalda, Douglasii, prunifo-lia, Reevesii, Thunbergii and Van Hout-tei are all grand, splendid shrubs.
Staphylea colchica; the bladder nut.
Symphoriearpus, the snowberry; of several species.
Syringa; the well known lilac. Several species and varieties, and now some fine double forms.
Showing; the Marvelous Diversity of Foliage in Lilacs.
Viburnum, the snowball; plicatum and opulis.
Weiglia, many varieties. Rose, red and white flowers and variegated foliage.
The above is not a collection but merely a selection. Many desirable kinds could be added. I have not included any of the broad-leaved evergreen shrubs, as there are so few. Daphne cneorum does deserve a place in every garden. Euonymus radicans variegatus is used for the margins of shrubberies. Mahonia aquifolia, with its racemes of yellow flowers and purple fruit, is a beautiful holly-leaved-like shrub, but unless shaded from the March suns it burns badly.
Neither have I said anything about the rhododendrons, kalmias, or hardy azaleas. "Where these American plants do well cultivated, as they do so finely at Wellesley, Mass., and doubtless many other places, they are beautiful and desirable, but in a limestone district, without a great labor of transporting suitable soil, and again with our zero nights and bright days, they are useless, and to plant them is a fraud. They are a fit article for the tree peddler who never goes back after the bill is collected, and who is usually nomadic in his habits, like the Par-thians of old.
We have not such a long list of evergreens or conifers, and our winters bar us from planting many of great beauty that thrive in the British Isles, but we have a good variety. You are usually advised to plant small trees. Good advice, as long as nurserymen won't furnish you a tree that has been transplanted and furnished with a compact ball of roots.
You must remember that many of the evergreens that are hardy in the vicinity of New York and Boston are useless in land in the latitude of Chicago, and many are catalogued as hardy, such as Cedrus deodara and Cu-pressus Lawsoniana. They are useless in our vicinity. It is not only the low temperature, but some other climatic influence that kills them or leaves them stunted, crippled objects.
Several of the abies are fine, including alba, white spruce; Canadensis, hemlock spruce, and excelsa, Norway spruce, many forms of it. Several junipers, the Irish, Swedish and our own red cedar, J. Virginiana. Picea pungens, the Colorado blue spruce, is the most beautiful of our conifers, and P. balsamea, P. concolor and P. Nord-maniana, are fine trees. The pines are the noblest of the conifers. The Australian is one of our hardiest trees, and so is P. sylvestris, the Scotch pine. P. strobus, our native white pine, and P. cembra, the stone pine.
The retinosporas are dense growing, compact evergreens, and are good and hardy. The thuyas (arbor-vitae) make handsome trees. T. occidentalis is our yellow or white cedar, and T. orientalis is the Siberian or Chinese arbor-vitae, a very compact, hardy evergreen. Tax-odium distichum, the southern cypress, though deciduous, like our American larch, is a conifer and makes a splendid specimen for our lawns, and the giants of the south provide us with its invaluable timber. For dwarf evergreens the taxus (yews) are unequaled. They are hardy and have several ornamental forms.
Spiraea Van Houttei.
It is characteristic of many of the conifers that they vary much in form and color, hence the many varieties that are now known, and to this variation we owe the several golden forms we have in the thuyas, taxus and reti-nosporas.
I have said nothing about propagation of the shrubs, because that is a nurseryman's business, and unless you are in the business to some extent you had better buy the shrubs from reputable nurserymen. Even they depend largely on importing small plants from France from specialists who raise millions of the leading varieties and supply them at a seemingly very low cost. If you have a few acres of good light soil, easy to work, it would be a good investment to buy a thousand or so of small plants of the leading kinds and in two years you will have shrubs that you can sell your customers with the greatest confidence.
The long list of noble trees I cannot enter on. Nurserymen publish descriptive catalogues of all desirable kinds. I am not in favor of transplanting large trees from the woods of our native elms and maples. They survive a few years, but generally collapse in three or four.