A ventilator left open too late, a draught from an open door, ventilation forgotten till too late in the day, or a November to April, or even May. Choose wood that is medium in strength and don't use either the green top or the hard base. When potting them off I have lost quite a number by their being left exposed to a bright sun. Be careful to shade and keep moist for a few days. Let there be always two eyes to the cutting.
In growing them on into 3-inch or possibly 4-inch pots, give them all the light and air you can till planting time, as you do the tea varieties. The Beauties want to flower early, but the buds should be picked off till the end of August. From then till the first of November you will get a good many nice buds with 18-inch to 30-inch stems, and the stems will break again and usually send up another flowering stem, but as soon as the dark weather sets in the break from a strong cut down shoot will be blind, or practically blind, for it may grow ten feet long before it flowers. So, after the first of November if you are looking for flowers at the holidays, when they are worth $1.50 each, you must let the flower fully expand and then cut it off at the neck and sacrifice it. You will notice that at the axil of the leaf just below the flower there is already a young growth. That growth will give a flower six weeks later, and you will be getting a dollar for your flower instead of 25 cents, or in that vicinity, which is worth while.
American Beauties are very liable to be troubled with red spider, and should he thoroughly syringed, but never on damp, cloudy days or late in the day.
Some growers carry over for the second winter their beds of roses, both on benches and in solid beds. Should you intend to carry over a bed of tea roses in four inches of soil, don't do any severe drying of roots. It is very injurious. Keep up your, daily syringing in July and August; that will usually keep the soil about right and be rest enough. All the pruning that is necessary is to cut out weak growths and shorten back the blind wood. If in a shallow bench, you can with care remove one inch of the surface soil and replace with a compost of soil, manure and a little bone meal. A bed that is carried over will give you more and better buds in the fall than a young bed. When you go to the exhibition and see vases of Brides and Maids, large buds on 30-inch stems, it makes you shrink when you think of the 12-inch stems on your young beds at home. The strong growths of a carried over bed of roses after they get a good start will often send up strong shoots which at 18-inch length will show a bud; that bud is picked off and the shoot keeps growing another foot before showing a bud. Perhaps, if time allows, the second bud is pinched out and another twelve inches of growth follows, to be crowned with a fine bud. You have obtained a stem of thirty inches or three feet. We have found by experience that the pretty rose Cusin and its valuable sports, particularly Mrs. J. P. Morgan, are inclined to flower too freely. If these short-stemmed flowers are pinched off, a foot or more of strong growth will ensue which will produce a splendid flower and of course a good stem, worth three times the price of the little short-stemmed growth. Thus are these long-stemmed roses produced in the fall. We know excellent rose growers who prefer to plant every year. Yet many of our largest growers carry over the 'majority of their stock. I have never seen a bed of this kind equal to a young, well managed lot, but they occasionally do very well up to about February. When intended to be grown on for a second winter they should have a little light shade in June, July and August, or they get terribly exhausted. Plants in four or five inches of soil will not bear to be dried out but very slightly, and that had better be done in July. All the pruning they need is just the blind and weak and worn-out wood cut out. The young, vigorous growth should be left untouched.
Those in solid beds, in a foot or so of soil, can be dried off considerably more and can also be much harder cut back. In a foot of strong, heavy loam we had a bed of old Safrano, Isabella Sprunt and Bon Silene years ago, and we used to let the bed get hard and cracked. About the first week in August we pruned them back to bare wood, gave them a heavy mulch of cow manure and started again, and I have never seen more roses to the square foot than those plants produced for several years.
The plan of running hot water or steam pipes through rubble stone with a foot of soil or less on top is. I believe, abandoned. It is certainly nonsense to think that roses want bottom heat, and no pipes are run under a bench. Mr. Gasser, of Cleveland, who grows roses largely, is a strong advocate of a bench on, or a few inches above, the surface of the ground, on which he puts 2-inch drain tiles close together. I cannot see any advantage in this plan, except that it affords a most excellent drainage and would be a fine bottom to any solid bed Roses for summer blooming are not given the attention that they deserve. Many of the hybrid teas are used for this purpose. Kaiserin Augusta Victoria and Souv. du President Carnot are superb for this purpose. There is just hybrid blood enough in these roses to make them inclined to rest in December and January, but nine months in the year they are invaluable. In June, July and August we frequently have a difficulty in getting large, clean flowers. Houses for this purpose should run north and south, because they are the coolest. The beds should be well drained, solid beds affording plenty of head-room, for these plants will be kept in the borders for several years and will be a considerable size before outgrowing their usefulness. You must begin in the early spring with planting. and will' cut a very paying crop the following summer and fall.