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The Fruit Cultivator's Manual | by Thomas Bridgeman



For the cultivation of the most important fruits including the cranberry, the fig, and grape, with descriptive lists of the most admired varieties. And a calendar, showing the work necessary to be done in the orchard and fruit garden every month of the year. The whole adapted to the climate of the united states.

TitleThe Fruit Cultivator's Manual
AuthorThomas Bridgeman
PublisherThomas Bridgeman
Year1847
Copyright1847, Thomas Bridgeman
AmazonThe fruit cultivator's manual
Fruit Cultivator's ManualThomas Bridgeman

By Thomas Bridgeman, Gardener, Seedsman, and Florist.

-Preface
This treatise forms the third part of The Young Gardener's Assistant, which, when first issued, in 1829, contained only 96 pages. Since that period, so constant has been the demand for the work, tha...
-Observations On The Fruit Garden And Orchard
In the preliminary observations on the subjects already treated of, I am aware that it may appear to some that I have not sufficiently urged the importance of a judicious selection of situation, expos...
-Observations On The Fruit Garden And Orchard. Continued
Seasons for Transplanting Spring is the season when we find the most pleasure in making our rural improvements, and from this circumstance, probably, it has become the general season for planting tr...
-Observations On Insects, And Diseases To Which Fruit Trees Are Liable
Much may be written relative to the various diseases to which fruit trees are liable, and also to the prevention and destruction of the various kinds of reptiles and insects, which very frequently dep...
-Observations On Diseases and Insects To Which Fruit Trees Are Liable. Continued
For Apricot, Nectarine, and Peach Trees To eight gallons of water add one pound of soft soap, two pounds of common sulphur, and half an ounce of black pepper. For Apple, Cherry, Pear, and Plum Trees...
-Observations On Training And Pruning Fruit Trees And Vines
In training and pruning fruit trees and vines, particular attention is required. To supply a tree with a sufficiency of vegetable juices, there must necessarily be living bark and wood in an uninterru...
-Budding And Grafting Fruit Trees
Budding and Grafting, Lindley observes, are operations that equally depend for their success upon the property that buds possess of shooting roots downward, and stems upward; but in these practices, t...
-Budding, Or Inoculating
To bud trees, let the following method be adopted: Procure a knife which has a thin blade, and a sharp ivory handle; the use of the blade is to prepare the buds, and the handle is used to raise the ba...
-Grafting
Grafting is the taking a shoot from one tree and inserting it into another, in such a manner that both may unite closely, and become one tree. These shoots are called scions or grafts, and in the choi...
-Forsyth's Composition. Directions For Making. Composition, Grafting Clay, Etc., For Use On Fruit Trees
The British Parliament gave Mr. Forsyth a valuable premium for the following important directions for making a composition for curing diseases, defects, and injuries in all kinds of fruit and forest t...
-On The Choice Of Fruit Trees In The Nursery
In the choice of fruit trees, all possible care and attention are necessary; for, to have trees that do not answer the expectations of the proprietor, is a great disappointment. As the young gardener ...
-Apple. Pommier. Pyrus malus
The Apple being so closely connected with our wants and enjoyments, is entitled to the first notice in the catalogue of our fruits. The Apple Orchard is, in truth, the vineyard of our country; and the...
-Select Descriptive List Of Apples. Summer Fruit
American Summer Pearmain, Early Summer Pearmain. This apple is of medium size and oblong form; its colour bright red on the sunny side, and on the opposite side yellow, streaked or blotched with red; ...
-Autumn Fruit
Alexander, Emperor Alexander, Aporta Fruit very large, somewhat cordate, smallest at the crown; of a greenish yellow colour, striped or marbled with red; pulp tender, sweet, rich, and aromatic: ripen...
-Autumn Fruit. Continued
Gravenstein Fruit rather large and compressed; of a yellowish green colour, striped with red; flesh crisp, and high flavoured: ripens in October, and lasts till April. This variety originated in Germ...
-Winter Apples Fruit
Aesopus SPitzenburg A beautiful apple; large and oval; of red co-our, covered with numerous white specks; the flesh is yellowish; slightly acid, and of the finest flavour: ripens in October, and cont...
-Winter Apples Fruit. Part 2
Golden Harvey, Brandy Apple A dessert apple, not larger than the Golden Pippin; colour light yellow, with a flush of red, and embroidered with a roughish russet. It is called Brandy Apple from the su...
-Winter Apples Fruit. Part 3
Minister A native apple of large size, and oblong shape; the skin a light greenish yellow, striped with bright red; flesh yellow, light, high flavoured and excellent. Mr. Manning considered this as o...
-Winter Apples Fruit. Part 4
Swaar Apple A much celebrated winter table fruit in some parts of New York and New Jersey; it is a large apple of uncommon flavour and richness; skin of a greenish yellow, tinged with blush. The tree...
-Winter Apples Fruit. Part 5
Lyscum, Osgood's Favourite A Massachusetts variety of merit. Fruit large, round; skin greenish yellow, mottled with red; flesh fine grained, exceedingly mild and agreeable in flavour: in use from Sep...
-Cider Fruit
Campfield or Newark Sweeting This apple is next in reputation, as a cider fruit, to the Harrison, and is often mixed with that apple in equal proportions when ground; it is of the middle size, skin s...
-Apricot. Abricotier. Prunus Armeniaca
The fruit of the Apricot is next in esteem to the Peach, and as it ripens three or four weeks earlier, should be more generally cultivated. The flowers appear in April, on the shoots of the preceding ...
-Select Descriptive List Of Apricots
Breda, Abricot de Hollande, Amande Aveline, Royal Persian. Fruit medium size, of a round form, and deep yellow colour; the pulp is soft and juicy; the tree is a great bearer, and the fruit, which ripe...
-Almonds. Amandier. Amygdalus
Although Almonds are not much cultivated in this part of our country, they are entitled to notice. The species are fruit trees, or ornamental trees and shrubs, both much esteemed for the gay colour an...
-Cherry. Cerisier. Prunus cerasus
The Cherry, of the cultivated varieties, is said to have been first introduced into Italy in the year 73, from a town in Pontus, in Asia, called Cerasus, whence its specific name; and it was introduce...
-Select Descriptive List Of Cherries. Duke And Round Fruit
Ambree de Choisy, Belle de Choisy of Downing Cerise Doucette, Cerise de la Palembre of the French gardens. A middle size roundish fruit, highly deserving of cultivation. Skin transparent, red, mottle...
-Heart-Shaped And Bigarreaus Cherries
American Amber, Early Amber New Honey A beautiful heart-shaped cherry, of medium size, and dark pink or amber colour; flesh, rich, sweet, and excellent. It ripens early in June. American Heart, Arde...
-Heart-Shaped And Bigarreaus Cherries. Continued
Florence A very fine heart-shaped cherry; of a yellow amber colour, marbled with bright red in the shade, bright red next the sun; flesh tolerably firm juicy, rich, and sweet: ripe end of June and in...
-Chestnut. Chataigner. Castanea
The Chestnut is well known as a large tree, spreading its branches finely where it has room, but planted closely, will shoot up straight to a great height. It is supposed to have been originally from ...
-Cranberry. Canneberge. Oxycoccus
This genus of plants is well distinguished from the Vac-cinium, or Whortleberry, by the narrow revolute segments of corolla; and are pretty little trailing evergreen plants, to which a peat soil, and ...
-Currant. Groseiller a grappes. Ribes
This is a genus of well-known shrubs, much cultivated for their fruit. It is a native of the Northern parts of Europe, and found in hedges and woods in England; and there are some species indigenous ...
-Select Descriptive List Of Currants
Black English, Common Black This species is most generally cultivated in private gardens for medicinal purposes; the berries are plentiful, of large size, and frequently hang on the bush two months, ...
-Fig. Figuier. Ficus carica
There are many species of the Fig, which are all natives of warm climates. In some parts of Asia, and in the South of Europe, they are always grown as standards; and the fruit, green and dried, forms ...
-Select Descriptive List Of Figs
Angelique, Coucourelle Blanche, Melitte Fruit rather small, somewhat pyramidal; skin yellow, mottled with white; pulp white; seed tinged with red. In the neighbourhood of Paris this variety produces ...
-Filbert And Hazlenut. Noisetier Avelinier. Corylus
The Filbert, in many varieties, and also the common Ha-zlenut, grow spontaneously in the woods of Britain, and some few varieties are indigenous in this country. The kinds of Filberts generally cultiv...
-Gooseberry. Groseiller. Ribes grossularia, uva, crispa, etc
The Gooseberry is a native of several parts of Europe, and is indigenous in America, as far north as 68. It is cultivated to greater perfection in England than in any other part of the world. In ...
-Red Gooseberry
British Crown, Boardman's This variety is noted as being a fine flavoured fruit, especially for tarts. Thirty-three prizes had been awarded for it in 1829; the largest berry weighing 18 pennyweights ...
-Yellow Gooseberry
Bunker's Hill, Copper's Two hundred and ten prizes were awarded for this variety in two years; the heaviest berry weighing 20 dwts 2 grains. Britannia This variety is noted for its earliness and de...
-Green Gooseberry
Angler, Collier's Three hundred and sixty-five prizes were awarded for this variety in two seasons; the heaviest berry weighing 20 dwts. 1 grain. Early Green, Hairy This variety is described in the...
-White Gooseberry
Bonny Lass, Capper's This variety won one hundred and sixty - seven prizes in two seasons; the heaviest berry weighing 21 dwts. 10 grains. Cheshire Lass Saunders's. This is one of the earliest vari...
-Grape. Vigne. Vitis, Vinifera, Vulpina
The Grape Vine is described by Loudon as a trailing deciduous hardy shrub, with a twisted, irregular stem, and long, flexible branches, decumbent, like those of the bramble, or supporting themselves, ...
-Select Descriptive List Of Native Grapes
Alexander, Constantia of Vevay, Madeira of York, Pa., Winne, Schuylkill Muscadel. A good wine fruit, of large size, blackish colour, and oblong form; very juicy and pungent; a great and sure bearer. ...
-Select Descriptive List Of Native Grapes. Part 2
Edward H Bonsall has a vineyard of American Grapes at Germantown, Pa., in a high state of cultivation. In page 331 of Prince's Treatise on the Vine, is a letter to the author, containing some valuabl...
-Select Descriptive List Of Native Grapes. Part 3
The following extracts are from Dr Underhill's communication to the editor of the 'Cultivator,' published January 28th, 1843: In this latitude, (south of the highlands of the Hudson,) I find that t...
-Mulberry. Murier. Morus
There are several species of the Morus or Mulberry. The white kind is commonly cultivated for its leaves to feed silkworms, though in some parts of Spain, and in Persia, they are said to prefer the Bl...
-Nectarine. Pechera Fruit lisse, ou Brognons. Amygdalus nectarina
The varieties of this fruit resemble the Peach in every respect, except that the skin is perfectly smooth, of a waxen appearance, and the flesh generally more firm; although of the same genus as the P...
-Select Descriptive List Of Nectarines. Freestone Nectarines
Aromatic A middle sized, rather globular fruit, skin pale straw colour with deep red or brown next the sun; flesh pale straw, but red at the stone; juice of a rich vinous flavour; ripe early in Augus...
-Clingstones, Or Pavies
Brugnon Violet Musque, Brugnon Musque Fruit large, of a deep red and yellow colour; skin very smooth; flesh yellow, but red at the stone; saccharine, vinous, musky; at maturity in August and Septembe...
-Peach. Pecher. Almygdalus Persica
It is generally considered that the Peach is of Persian origin. In Media, it is deemed unwholesome; but when planted in Egypt, becomes pulpy, delicious, and salubrious. It has been cultivated, time im...
-Peach. Pecher. Almygdalus Persica. Continued
As the failure of this fruit of late years has elicited considerable discussion and observation, which increases in interest annually, I will offer an exposition of my views on the subject, by a compa...
-Select Descriptive List Of Peaches. Freestone Peaches
Astor An excellent variety, originating in the city of New - York; the fruit is above medium size; skin pale yellow, with red cheek; flesh melting and pleasant flavoured; juice sweet and plentiful; r...
-Select Descriptive List Of Peaches. Freestone Peaches. Part 2
Early Royal George Red Magdalen of Prince. A superior variety, of medium size, and rather globular form; skin yellow, with red cheek; flesh melting and delicious; in August. There are several varieti...
-Freestone Peaches. Part 3
Late Admirable, Royale, Royal, Bourdine Teton dr. Venus of Prince and Dooming. Fruit large, roundish, inclining to oblong; sature deeply impressed along one side, having the flesh swelling boldly and...
-Freestone Peaches. Part 4
Prince's Late Yellow Freestone A beautiful fruit, of a greenish yellow colour, tinged with red; flesh firm and rich. A partially ripe specimen of this variety was exhibited by Mr. Prince in the Horti...
-Pavies, Or Clingstone Peaches
Blood Cling, Claret Clingstone, Red Velvet Sanguinole of Prince. Blood Peach of Winter & Co. Fruit large, oblong, of a dark violet or crimson colour; flesh blood red to the stone; highly valuable for ...
-Pear. Poirier. Pyrus
The Pear tree, in its wild state, is thorny, with upright branches, tending to the pyramidal form, in which it differs materially from the Apple tree. The twigs, or sprays, hang down; the leaves are e...
-Select Descriptive List Of Pears. Summer Fruit
Ah Mow Dieu A beautiful Pear, introduced by J. B. Mantel, of Bloomingdale, New-York. It is depicted in 'Hoffy's Orchardists' Companion, by a handsome coloured plate, accompanied by the following desc...
-Select Descriptive List Of Pears. Summer Fruit. Continued
Madeleine, Magdalene, Citron des Carmes Early Chaumontelle. This Pear is of medium size, pale yellow, with an occasional blush next the sun; flesh white, melting, perfumed. A fine early fruit, ripeni...
-Autumn Pear Fruit
Andrews, Amory, Gibson Fruit oblong; skin yellowish green, with a dull red cheek; flesh melting, juicy, and high flavoured. Mr. Manning represents it as a very valuable pear, producing its fruit ear...
-Autumn Pear Fruit. Part 2
Charles d'Autriche, Gracieuse Charles of Austria. A fine and beautiful fruit, large, three and a half inches long, and three inches broad; colour greenish yellow, with brown spots, and partially russ...
-Autumn Pear Fruit. Part 3
Golden Beurre of Bilboa This variety was imported from Bilboa, by Mr. Hooper, of Marblehead; the original name being unknown. Fruit of medium size, oblong; colour a bright golden yellow, with patches...
-Autumn Pear Fruit. Part 4
Napoleon, Medaille, Sauvageon Liart Roide Rome, and Wurtemburg of Prince. Fruit large, form of the Colmar; skin smooth; colour bright green, but at maturity pale green; flesh very melting with an unu...
-Winter Pear Fruit
Beurre d'Aremberg, Beurre d' Arembert, Duc d' Aremberg. Poire d' Aremberg, Beurre Deschamps, Beurre des Orphelins of Deschamps, Colmar Deschamps. The English and French writers speak of this Pear as o...
-Winter Pear Fruit. Continued
Lewis This variety originated on the farm of Mr. I. Lewis, of Roxbu-ry, Mass. The size is medium; form somewhat globular; skin, when ripe, a greenish yellow; the flesh is white, very melting, juicy a...
-Perry Pears
Barland This variety took its name from the original tree, growing in a field called Bare Lands, in Herefordshire, England. The fruit is smallish, of ovate form; skin dull green, russetted with grey....
-Plum. Prunier. Prunus
The Plum tree rises fifteen feet in height, branching into a moderately spreading head; the leaves are ovate, serrated, and on short petioles; petals white. The natural colour of the fruit is generall...
-Select Descriptive List Of Plums
American Yellow Gage, American Wheat A beautiful medium sized oval Plum, of a bright yellow colour, when fully ripe; its flavour is rich, equal to the Green Gage. The fruit is not apt to crack nor to...
-Select Descriptive List Of Plums. Part 2
Downton Imperatrice A superior late Plum, of medium size, shaped similar to the blue imperatrice; skin dark yellow, and very thin; the flesh yellow, soft, juicy, with a high flavoured acidity; at per...
-Select Descriptive List Of Plums. Part 3
Hubing's Superb, Keyser's Plum This Plum is of monstrous size, and has been known to weigh nearly four ounces; it is of roundish form, and of a greenish yellow colour; the flesh is sweet and excellen...
-Select Descriptive List Of Plums. Part 4
October Gage, Frost Gage A beautiful native fruit, a drawing of which has been taken from nature, and may be found in Hoffy'sOrchard-ist's Companion. Fruit of medium size; form oblong; colour dark ...
-Select Descriptive List Of Plums. Part 5
Red Perdrigon, Perdrigon Rouge An excellent Plum, of the first class; of medium size, oval shape, and fine red colour, with gold coloured dots, and a fine bloom; flesh bright yellow, transparent, and...
-Quince. Coignassier. Cydonia
The Quince is of low growth, much branched, and generally crooked and distorted. The leaves are roundish, or ovate, entire, above dusky green, underneath whitish, on short petioles. The flowers are la...
-Raspberry. Framboisier. Rubtis, etc
There are several species of the Rubtis found wild in various parts of Asia, Europe, and America, some of which have upright stems, others prostrate; the American Stone Bramble, and also the common Bl...
-Select Descriptive List Of Raspberries
American Black Block Cap. This fruit is of smallish size, and ripens June and July. It is a favourite with some. American Red, English Red, Common Red This variety is much cultivated for the market...
-Strawberry. Fraisier. Fragaria
This is a genus of fruit-bearing herbaceous plants, of which there are few in the vegetable kingdom that can equal the Strawberry in wholesomeness and excellence. The fruit is supposed to receive its ...
-Select Descriptive List Of Strawberries
The Wood Strawberry, Fragaria vesea, with oval serrated leaves; the fruit red white, and green, which is round and small. A native of Britain. Some of the varieties are in great repute, as they are ve...
-Select Descriptive List Of Strawberries. Continued
Grove End Scarlet, Atkinson's Scarlet A seedling raised by Wm. Atkinson, at Grove End, Marylebone, in 1820; fruit large, oblate, of a bright vermillion colour, and rich flavour; ripe by the middle of...
-Walnut. Noyer. Juglans
From the circumstance of our having an abundance of the fruit, from the many species of this genus of trees growing spontaneously around us, it is presumed that the culture of the Juglans regia, commo...
-Calendar And Index. January
The clear icicle shines in the sun's faint beam, Congealed is the river, the lake, and the stream, The trees are all leafless, while sullen winds roar, And Nature benumbed seems her fate to deplore. ...
-February
Without 'tis a desert, too bleak for a ram, Within we have one - merely Apples and Jam, Preserved for the season, with skill and with care, By the hands of the thrifty, the good, and the fair! As the...
-March
The Gard'ner at work, ere the birds pipe a tune, Each fruit tree inspects, then commences to prune; The insects destroying, on branches or root, That injure the blossom, or live in the fruit. If the ...
-April
No advocate he for a long morning nap, Waking early, he plants ere the rise of the sap; Whilst glee and good humour enliven his face, More happy, by far, than his Lordship or Grace. Finish pruning ha...
-May
The Gooseberry green the first fruit of the year, In pudding or pie, affords exquisite cheer, But e'en should the season their pleasure forefend. In such a dilemma, green Rhubarb's a friend. Finish p...
-June
The Cherry, the Currant, and Strawberry red, To the rich and the poor their refreshment have shed; Pomona has scatter'd her blessings abroad, The full-bearing branches bend down with their load. T...
-July
The Margaret Apple, the pride of our clime With the Apricot, Raspberry, true to their time, Are pleasant companions, as summer e'er met, Though others, as welcome, are coming on yet. Thin the fruit ...
-August
The Peach, plump and ripe, brings us excellent fare, Let the Nectarine, too, in this eulogy share - Their flavour how grateful - their juices bow fine, Unequall'd in taste by the fruit of the vine. F...
-September
The Peach and the Pear tree have still ample store, And the Plum, most inviting, makes urchins adore; A bountiful feast is spread over the land, For great is the Giver, unsparing His hand. Plantati...
-October
Oh Bacchus! thy Grapes now in bunches hang down; Some press them too freely their sorrows to drown ; Let Temperance in all things be ever our guide - No evil can flow from the generous tide! Pre...
-November
And now we've arrived near the close of the year, Winter Apples and Cranberries bring up the rear; All are good of their kind, and we freely declare, Not one of the Fruits we would willingly spare. A...
-December
Let sober Reflection, the Tiller employ, The sound seeds of Virtue will spring to his joy; To the Ruler of season's, let guatitude's voice, In His love and His wisdom for ever rejoice. If any of the ...
-Preservation Of Fruit Trees, Plants
To The People Of The United States Of America Fellow-Citizens: An application having been made to your Representatives in Congress to vote a sum equal to five cents from each individual in the Unite...
-Preservation Of Fruit Trees, Plants. Continued
The Senator from South Carolina, (Mr. Calhoun.) to whom I am indebted for pointing out one symptom of the error, and for a valuable suggestion in the culture of plants, said, while examining the defe...
-Retrospective View
This summary view of estimates is annexed, in order to aid the Seedsman and Gardener in making out a bill of seed for the purpose of planting any given quantity of ground, under the regulations sugges...
-Quantity Of Grass Seed Suitable To The Acre
Clover, sown alone, - - 12 pounds Timothy, - - - - - - - l peck. Herds Grass, - - - - - - 1 bushel. Orchard Grass, - - - - - 2 bushels. Rye Grass, - - - - - - - - - - 2 bushels. Lucerne, - - - - ...
-Quantity Of Grass Seed Suitable To The Acre. Part 2
Bridgemen's Gardener's Assistant - The fourth edition of this useful little manual is published, and is rendered of increased value by the addition of several matters not contained in either of the ...
-Quantity Of Grass Seed Suitable To The Acre. Part 3
The Florist's Guide - A delightful little book, which we advise every body to purchase - at least every body that has the least liking for the pleasing occupation on which it treats. - Courier & En...
-Lines
Suggested By The Award Of A Gold Medal To The Author Of 'The Young Gardener's Assistant,' At The Fourteenth Annual Fair Of The American Institute, 1841, For Its Great Practical Utility. By D. Mitchel...
-Appendix. Containing Remarks On The Alleged Disease Of The Potato
As I have not in the article Potato, page 86, attempted to give its History, I would here inform the reader, that the Potato was cultivated in Britain, by Gerard, the English Botanist, in 1590, and wa...
-Remarks On The Alleged Disease Of The Potato. Continued
I have, in several pages of the Young Gardener's Assistant, reminded my readers that the various species of plants which are cultivated in our gardens and fields, require each their peculiar aliment...
-Select Descriptive List Of Native Grapes. Continued
Diana A seedling of the Catawba, raised by Mrs. Diana Crehore, of Boston. Fruit resembling the Catawba, but paler in colour; bunches loose; berries round, juicy, and fine flavoured: it ripens two wee...
-Select Descriptive List Of Foreign Grapes
[Those designated thus * will ripen in the open air. Those marked thus require but little forcing in favourable seasons.] * Black Cluster, Black Morillon, True Burgundy, Early Black, Auverna. Bunches...
-Select Descriptive List Of Foreign Grapes. Continued
Lombardy Flame-coloured Tokay, Red Rhenish, Wantage. Bunches very large, frequently weighing six or seven pounds, being from twelve to eighteen inches in length; berries large, of somewhat oval figur...
-Select Descriptive List Of Peaches
Continued from page 110, Part III. Baltimore Beauty A native variety. Fruit rather small, roundish oval; skin deep orange, with a rich brilliant red cheek; flesh yellow, but red at the stone, sweet,...
-Select Descriptive List Of Pears
Continued from page 123 Part III. Beurre d'Anjou A first-rate Autumn pear, imported from France by Col. Wilder, of Boston: fruit rather above medium size; obovate; skin greenish yellow, a little cl...
-Select Descriptive List Of Plums. Continued
Continued from page 131, Part III. Autumn Gage, Roe's Autumn Gage A new late plum, raised by William Roe, Esq., of Newburgh. Fruit of medium size, oval; skin pale yellow, with whitish bloom; flesh j...
-American Standard Horticultural Books
The Young Gardener's Assistant, containing Catalogues of Garden and Flower Seed, with Practical Directions under each head for the Cultivation of Culinary Vegetables and Flowers; also, directions for ...









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