This section of the book is from the Guide To Hardy Fruits And Ornamentals book, by Thomas Joseph Dwyer, published in 1903.
It is almost impossible to complete the adornment of the lawn without planting a bed of the Hardy Hybrid Perpetuals. Blooming as they do at intervals from June to September adds materially to their great value in the landscape. It is not necessary to be a professional to successfully cultivate this class of roses, the after culture being very simple; most any soil will do for the Rose, but it must be well drained. In preparing the Rose garden be cautious to have the soil well spaded to the depth of eighteen inches and thoroughly incorporated with one-fifth its bulk of good decomposed stable manure -- cow or horse manure, or both mixed. We should have a deep loose soil for them to take their nourishment from. A grave mistake, quite frequently made in Rose planting is setting them too close together, and in doing we do not allow them sufficient soil from which to feed, consequently we get a very weak and spindling growth with insufficient organizable matter to set flower buds; at the same time we should always remember that the Rose requires sun and air, therefore do not plant them so close together that when they are covered with their luxuriant foliage we exclude the sun and prevent a free circulation of air. We recommend to plant the Hardy Hybrids three feet apart each way. Keep the soil cultivated during the Summer months, more. especially during a protracted drought; frequent loosening of the soil creates moisture. It is impossible for us to say what shape of Rose beds is best to arrange; this must in all cases be governed by the surrounding landscape and individual taste, but no matter what form of bed you may decide to plant the effect and pleasure will be equally as great.
The proper method of pruning the Rose must be determined by the grower. In a general way we might say a good rule to follow is to keep each individual bush in its own peculiar form of growth; we can aid nature, but we must not try to change it. Pruning should be done in the Spring as soon as the freezing weather is over, cutting back at least two thirds of the previous year's growth and at the same time removing any decayed wood which may be on the bush. During the Summer months cut out all weak sprouts which may appear and remove all imperfectly developed buds, thereby infusing all the vitality of the parent plant into the remaining bloom. Our experience in growing Roses, has taught us in order to keep our bushes in a healthy condition (quite necessary for the perfect development of bloom), we must spray. Having experimented with several spraying mixtures, we have had best results from a mixture of two pounds of whale oil soap to five gallons of water, which enabled us to combat successfully insects and fungous growth. We advise its use just as the buds are swelling and when in full leaf. If you notice insects during the Summer, spray again. We want to impress our readers with the necessity of getting the mixture on the under side of the foliage; this is where the mischievous little insects begin their work. Mulching the Rose bed in the Fall is quite frequently neglected by the ordinary grower. This should not be so. By mulching the bed with good stable manure we keep the roots warm and insure a growth of wood and flowers the following season. As soon as the ground is in condition for working we can spade this mulching in the soil which will serve as a fertilizer. Protecting the Rosesi with straw is not absolutely necessary, but we consider it time and money well spent in doing so. Always have them receive a nip of frost before covering, they will be benefited by it. The proper way to straw the bush is shown in illustration on this page. A man can protect a large bed in a short time. The description of Roses is classed in the following manner:
-- The prevailing shade in the most perfect development of the flower.
-- With 2 to 4 rows of petals.
-- Having more than 4 rows of petals, but which show the stamens when fully blown.
-- When the stamens are hid.
-- Inner petals shorter than the outer ones, the latter stand erect and are generally somewhat incurved.
-- Outer petals are concave with convex edges, folding richly one about the other tapering from the center. Flat. The surface of the flower is level or nearly even, and all the petals are exposed to view.