This section of the book is from the Guide To Hardy Fruits And Ornamentals book, by Thomas Joseph Dwyer, published in 1903.
* How to Plant
-- Trenches should be made for these deep enough to suit the requirements of the roots of the stock used. For a single hedge row of the California Privet the trench should be two and one-half feet wide and twelve inches deep; for the double row hedge of the Privet the trench should be four feet in width and the same depth as for the single row. This double row hedge makes a fine showing and should be used when our means permit it. When fully grown the top of this hedge will be six or seven feet in width. In any case the plants should be set one foot apart in the row, loose soil placed in the bottom and after the roots are covered the soil should be well treaded and firmed about them. The other hedging plants hereafter recommended, such as the Barberies, Japan Quince, Althea, Osage Orange and Buckthorn, should be treated in the same way as the California Privet.
* When to Plant
-- Any of the hedging plants above mentioned can be planted during the months of March, April and the forepart of May, in the Spring, and in the months of October and November, in the Fall -- one time being as good as the other providing the stock is not too far advanced.
-- After the hedge is planted it is desirable and beneficial to cover the ground about the plants with a liberal mulching of horse manure and about June first incorporate it with the soil. Prune Back fully two-thirds of the top growth when the plants are first set, after which annual pruning is necessary. You can keep the hedge in any desired height and shape with the judicious use of the shears.
* California Privet (Ligustrum Ovalifolium)
-- This magnificent strong growing desirable plant has become justly popular for the past few years and is now used almost exclusively for hedging purposes. The Privet has perhaps more in its favor, all things considered, than any other single shrub or plant. It is, of course, particularly adaptable for the construction of hedges, and is especially valuable for this work. It is inexpensive, hardy, easy to grow, succeeding admirably in most all soils, under the partial shade of trees, and under neglected cultural conditions. Yet while this is true, we know of no other tree or plant that will respond better and more satisfactorily to proper care and treatment. When this is granted it, the Privet will give astonishing and pleasing results. It is practically an evergreen, retaining its foliage for nine months of the year. By planting in sheltered positions and a heavy mulching of manure the Privet will not become defoliated during the entire year. We have a specimen on our place which has retained its luxuriant foliage during the past ten Winters and we enjoy it very much. The Privet can be used advantageously for many other purposes, such as clumping singly of itself and with other shrubs. It is also valuable as a screen plant to hide unsightly outbuildings, fences and the like; the great point in its favor is its quick growth, making from three to five feet of new wood each season. By severe pruning when first planted we force branches to grow close to the ground; a very necessary factor in a perfect Privet bush.
Its panicles of small white flowers that appear in mid-summer are quite interesting.
In Summer it is covered with rich, leathery green foliage, in midwinter changing to a deep purple, making a very pleasing contrast with the pure white snow.
* Berberis, Purpurea (Purple Leaved Barberry)
-- A very desirable plant for a hedge. Foliage of violet purple.
* Berberis Thunbergi (Thunberg's Barberry)
-- A dwarf spreading species, with small white flowers in May, followed with an abundance of deep scarlet berries, which color they maintain all winter.
* Cydonia Pyrus Japonica (Japan Quince)
-- The Japan Quince ranks among our choicest shrubs as an ornamental hedge plant.
* Hibiscus Syriacus (Althea)
-- These shrubs can be sheared into any desired shape, and are very showy, either when the entire hedge is of one color or when assorted colors are combined. Can also be employed as ornaments on the lawn either singly or grouped with other shrubs.
* Maclura Aurantiaca (Osage Orange)
-- The cheapest hedge plant of all. Makes a strong, durable fence; though not so ornamental as other kinds, yet when it is closely trimmed it is quite attractive.
* Rhamnus Catharticus (Buckthorn).
-- A fine hardy hedge plant of European origin. It has dark green foliage, white flowers and small black-fruit.