In order to successfully beautify our home grounds we should begin with the primary considerations and allow the details to come along naturally. Therefore, it is my intention to impress my readers in as few words as possible with the absolute necessity of attending to the preliminary arrangements.

It is not necessary to have any specially prepared soil for the successful culture of ornamental shade trees, shrubs, vines, providing, of course, that it is drained naturally or artificially. Botanical usage requires for each, tree or plant two names, one to specify the genus, the other to indicate the species. In order that our readers may familiarize themselves with botanical nomenclature, which is very essential for the discrimination of trees, plants, and vines. I will use the botanical names, and also give the common name in parenthesis.

* When to Plant

-- In the Spring, during the months of March, April and May, the earlier the better, and in October, November and December, in the Fall. The most essential part of planting is the preparation of the holes. Of course, it is impossible for me to explain in this work the exact size of each hole; we must take into consideration that the many different species of trees and shrubs employed in the decoration of the lawn have a root very dissimilar. Some have very long, tap-roots, others quite fiat and spreading. As a rule shrubs have a great mass of hairlike roots, so we can readily understand the necessity of having good, large holes for the reception of our trees and plants. Therefore I advise for shade trees and ornamental shrubs holes three and one-half feet in circumference and fifteen inches deep. In digging the hole it is inexpensive to place the good top soil in one side and the sub-soil on the other. In this manner we have the good soil intact. Always have the soil in the bottom of the hole loose. It is also advisable to mix a handful of wood ashes with the loose soil, which will at once begin to force our trees into growing.

* How to Plant

-- Do not allow the roots to remain exposed to the wind and sun. This is very detrimental. Although not necessary, it is advisable to wet the roots before planting. The soil will more readily adhere to them and assist them to take their nourishment from mother earth much sooner than if planted in a dry condition. Place the tree or shrub in the hole and carefully spread the roots. Do not allow them to come in contact with the hard edges of the hole. Take the good top soil which we have reserved and place it on the roots and work it amongst them. We are now at the most vital part of our planting, and must not neglect to use foot power to firm the soil about the roots. This thorough firming being done, we proceed to fill in the hole with the remaining soil to about six inches of the top. Put about two good forks of well-rotted manure on top of the soil, and fill in the remaining soil to the level of the ground. The object of covering the manure is to prevent the escape of nitrogen in, the form of ammonia and reap the benefits of the elements of plant food contained in the manure.

* Mulching

-- A very good practice, and one quite frequently neglected, is mulching the tree after planting. It is very simple and inexpensive. Any loose straw, litter or grass that may be on hand may answer the purpose. By this means we keep the weeds down and hold the moisture, which is quite necessary tor the sustenance of plant life.

Fall Planting should be done in October, November and December, and can be very much improved by mounding soil about the trunk of the tree to the height of about twelve inches. In this way we accomplish the double purpose of keeping the borers from entering the tree at the crown, which is the point he enters to begin his depredations, and that of keeping the tree from swaying with the winds. The distance to set ornamental shade trees must be governed by the result we desire to attain. We must consider the future when we are planning and arranging our landscape work and at all times keep it uppermost in our mind. To be successful in this line we must accomplish two purposes. Our work must be practical and pleasing to the eye., consequently we must give our work careful consideration and study the object in view. In beautifying home grounds we can by a judicious selection combine beautification and durability. For instance, if I were doing the landscape work on a country place, or in a park, I would employ for shade trees along the roads permanent trees, such as the Acer Sacoharmum (Sugar Maple) or Acer Platanoides (Norway Maple), both of which are of slow growth and very beautiful. With ordinary care these varieties will live for generations. We could use many other species that would at first give results which would be pleasing to us, but would be only temporary, being short lived. The distance apart to plant shade trees along private drives or avenues is between twenty five and thirty feet. By this means we give the roots sufficient soil from which to take their nourishment, and at the same time allow the branches to develop and spread in their natural way, without any interference It is quite necessary in arranging trees on the lawn to plant in clumps. By this means we can acquire a more finished appearance than planting singly. In that case we must plant at a lesser distance apart. From fifteen to twenty feet is the proper distance.

* Pruning Back

-- At the time of planting cut back the branches of the tree or shrub fully one-half, always keeping in mind to aid you the general or natural formation of the specie. Then make smooth all mutilated roots. Beautiful effects can be produced by planting in clumps of three, five and eight.

* Spraying

-- It is a good practice and very beneficial to spray the Deciduous Trees and Shrubs in the early spring. This should be done just before the buds begin to swell, using the Bordeaux mixture with the Paris Green added as advised on page 11 of this book. Occasionally during the Summer months plant vermin will attack the trees and shrubs. As soon as you notice them, spray thoroughly at once, using half a pound of Paris green and four pounds of slacked lime to fifty gallons of water. This spray will soon exterminate them. The three following varieties make a very desirable small clump and harmonize nicely:

* Fagus Purpurea (Purple Leaved Beech).

-- Makes an elegant medium sized tree for the lawn, the foliage in the spring is a deep purple, changing to crimson, in the autumn a dull purplish green.

* Acer Wierii Laciniatum (Wiers Cut-Leaf Maple)

-- One of the handsomest trees we have today; rapid growth; beautiful dissected foliage and drooping form. Makes a very ornamental tree, and is being planted largely as an avenue tree.

* Liriodendron Tulipifera (Tulip Tree)

-- A magnificent native tree, with broad, glossy fiddle-shaped leaves of a light green color and beautiful tulip-like flowers, allied to the Magnolias. The five species hereafter named make a very beautiful clump, containing varied characteristics in form of growth and foliage.

* Catalpa, Hybrida Japonica (Teas, Japan Catalpa)

-- Exceedingly rapid grower, with spreading, irregular form, and its large heart-shaped leaves, and clusters of white and purplish flowers in midsummer and its long seed pods in autumn make it an attractive ornamental tree for the lawn. The flowers are delightfully fragrant, and remain on the trees twelve to fifteen days.

* Acer, Saccharinum (Sugar Maple)

-- A well known native tree of elegant pyramidal form; valuable for the production of sugar and for its wood. Its fine form and foliage make it desirable as an ornamental and shade tree; the great American tree, and too well and favorably known to need any extended description.

* Betula Papyracea (Paper or Canoe Birch)

-- Native of America; forms a large tree; bark brilliant white, leaves large and handsome.

* Populus Bolleana (Bolleana Poplar).

-- Resembles Lombardy in growth, foliage dark green above and silvery green beneath; one of the best silver-leaved trees. A clean, beautiful tree in every particular.

* Acer Shwedlerii (Schwedlers Maple)

-- A beautiful tree with the young shoots and leaves of a bright purple or crimson color; changes to purplish green in the older leaves; one of the handsomest trees we have for lawn planting.

For large group of eight use these named and described below:

* Fagus, Cuprea (Copper Beech)

-- A rapid growing tree, foliage copper color; much used for avenues and lawns.

* Pyrus, Aucuparia (European Mountain Ash)

-- A fine, hardy tree, of medium size, erect stem and pinnate foliage covered from July until winter with large clusters of bright scarlet berries; very ornamental for the lawn.

* Koetreuteria, Paniculata (Varnish Tree)

-- The Koelreuteria is not as well known as it should be, as it fills a place in general landscape work occupied by few other trees. Leaves are pinnate dark green and are so glossy that they appear to be varnished. Producing large panicles of showy yellow flowers in July.

* Liquidambar Styraciflua (Sweet Gum or Bilsted)

-- One of the finest American trees. Of medium size and moderate growth; form roundheaded or tapering; leaves resemble somewhat those of the maple, but are star-shaped and of a beautiful glossy green color in summer, turning to a deep purplish crimson in autumn; bark corky. Beautiful in all stages of growth, it is particularly handsome and striking in autumn.

* Magnolia Macrophylla (Great Leaved Magnolia)

-- This we consider one of the greatest lawn ornaments, and should be planted on every well arranged lawn. The leaves are two feet in length and white beneath. Flowers, when full blown, 8 to 10 inches in diameter; appearing in June. Very rare.

* Acer, Platanoides (Norway Maple).

-- A distinct foreign variety, with large, broad leaves of a deep, rich green. One of the finest and most desirable trees grown. Acer,

* Pseuda Platanus (Sycamore Maple).

-- A beautiful tree with the right growth, with large foliage and ash gray colored bark. Winters back in cold situations.

* Aesculus, Rubicunda (Red Flowering Chestnut)

-- Not so rapid a grower as the white; foliage of dark green, blooms later. A very showy tree. No lawn is complete without this very handsome tree. There are many more Ornamental Trees that can be used in grouping, but from our own experience and observation we consider those varieties which we have named and described above, the most valuable for this purpose

* Gymnocladus, Canadensis (Kentucky Coffee Tree)

-- A beautiful tree, with pinnate leaves, foliage a delicate bluish green; flowers in June, followed by very long seed pods; very desirable for lawn planting; thrives well on any soil.

* Morus Downing (Downing Mulberry).

-- Everbearing; a fine ornamental tree; bears fine black fruit.

* Quercus Alba (American White Oak).

-- One of the finest American trees, of large size and spreading branches; leaves lobed, pale green above and glaucous beneath.

* Cercis, Canadensis (American Judas Tree).

-- A very ornamental tree, with perfect heart-shaped leaves, covered with a profusion of delicate reddish purple flowers. Before the foliage appears, grown as single specimens, they are very attractive.

* Salisburia, Adiantifolia (Maiden Hair Tree)

-- A tree from Japan combining in its characteristics the Conifer and Deciduous tree. The tree is of medium size, beautiful, fern-like foliage, resembling a maiden hair fern. Rare and elegant.

* Chionanthus, Virginica (White Fringe)

-- A small native tree, with large, glossy leaves and drooping racemes of pure white flowers, having fringe-like petals; blooms in May.

* Salix, Laurefolia (Laurel Leaf Willow).

-- A medium-sized tree of great merit, of rounded form, foliage deep green, resembling very much the handsome Broad Leaf Laurel.

* Quercus Palustris (Pin Oak)

-- This is considered the most beautiful of all the Oaks. As the tree grows the branches droop until the lower ones touch the ground, giving it a peculiarly beautiful ovate outline. The leaves are deep green, glossy and finely divided, flaming to orange and scarlet in the fall. Rhus Cotinus (Purple Fringe).

-- A very curious tree, with masses of purplish flowers. When covered with dew, it resembles a cloud of smoke. It is sometimes called smoke tree.

* Liquidambar Styraciflua (Sweet Gum or Bilsted)

-- One of the finest American trees. Of medium size and moderate growth, form roundheaded or tapering; leaves resemble somewhat those of the maple, but are star-shaped and of a beautiful glossy green color in summer, turning to a deep purplish crimson in autumn; bark corky. Beautiful in all stages of growth, it is particularly handsome and striking in autumn.

* Acer Shwedlerri (Schwedlers Maple)

-- A beautiful tree with the young shoots and leaves of a bright purple or crimson color; changes to purplish green in the older leaves; one of the handsomest trees we have for lawn planting.

* Populus, Boleana (Boleana Poplar)

-- Resembles Lombardy in its growth; foliage dark green above and silvery green beneath; one of the best silver-leaved trees.

* Acer, Dasycarpum (Silver Maple)

-- A handsome shade tree of rapid growth, with small foliage of glossy green above and silvery appearance beneath. Tree very hardy and easily transplanted where immediate shade is required. One of the most useful trees, also a favorite street and park tree.

* Acer Wieril Laciniatum (Wiers Cut-Leaf Maple)

-- One of the handsomest trees we have today; rapid growth, beautiful dissected foliage and drooping form. Makes a very ornamental tree.

* Aesculus, Rubicunda (Red Flowering Chestnut)

-- Not so rapid a grower as the white; foliage of dark green, blooms later. A very showy tree. No lawn is complete without this very handsome tree.

* Fagus, Cupera (Copper Beech).

-- A rapid growing tree, foliage copper color; much used for avenues and lawns.

* Pyrus, Aucuparia (European Mountain Ash).

-- A fine, hardy tree, of medium size, erect stem and pinnate foliage, covered from July until winter with large clusters of bright scarlet berries; very ornamental for the lawn.

* Fraxinus, Quercifolia (Oak Leaved Ash)

-- A tree with pyramidal head and dark lobed leaves, downy underneath, producing scarlet berries; very hardy and desirable for planting in lawns.

* Catalpa, Hybrida Japonica (Teas, Japan Catalpa)

-- Exceedingly rapid grower with spreading, irregular form and its large heart-shaped leaves, and clusters of white and purplish flowers in midsummer and its long seed pods in autumn make it an attractive ornamental tree for the lawn.

* Tilia, Americana (American Linden)

-- A native tree, with large leaves and a profusion of yellow flowers, in early summer; desirable for lawn or avenue.

* Tilia, Europeau (European Linden)

-- A variety of neat and compact habit; leaves are much larger than our native sorts.

* Liriodendron Tulipifera (Tulip Tree)

-- A magnificent native tree, with broad glossy fiddle-shaped leaves of a light green color and beautiful tulip-like flowers, allied to the Magnolias.

* Acer Lutescens

-- A variety of the silver-leaved maple, of vigorous growth, with bright yellow leaves. Its rich bronze shoots in spring, and tender yellow-green foliage in summer, will render it a valuable tree for the landscape.

* Ulmus Campestris (English Elm)

-- An erect, lofty tree, of rapid, compact growth, with smaller and more regularly cut leaves than those of the American, and darklier colored bark. The branches project from the trunk almost at right angles, giving the tree a noble appearance.

* Ulmus Belgica

-- A fine variety of English Elm, large size, rapid growth, and fine spreading shape.

* Acer, Reitenbachi (Reitenbach's Norway Maple).

-- An excellent and striking variety with dark purple leaves, which retain their color throughout the season.

* Acer, Platanoides Dissectum (Cut-Leaved Norway Maple).

-- Compact growing tree, with dense, dark green foliage, which is regularly and deeply cut, so as almost to divide the leaf into three parts. One of the best of the cut-leaved varieties; rare.

* Cornus Florida (White Flowering Dogwood)

-- An American species, of spreading irregular form, growing from 16 to 25 feet high. The flowers produced in spring before the leaves appear are from 3 to 31/2 inches in diameter, white and very showy. They begin to appear just as the Magnolia flowers are fading, and are invaluable for maintaining a succession of bloom in the garden border or on the lawn.

* Virgilia Lutea (Yellow Wood).

-- One of the finest American trees. Of moderate growth, broadly rounded head, foliage compound like that of the Robinia, and of a light green color, turning to a warm yellow in Autumn; flowers pea-shaped, white, sweet-scented, appearing In June in great profusion, in long drooping racemes covering the tree.

* Cytisus (Laburnum or Golden Chain)

-- A native of Europe, with smooth and shining foliage. The name Golden Chain alludes to the length of the drooping racemes of yellow flowers, which appear in June.