This section of the book is from the Guide To Hardy Fruits And Ornamentals book, by Thomas Joseph Dwyer, published in 1903.
Where the conditions are right and suitable you can make deep furrows singly or crosswise of the field with the use of the team and soil plow which will save considerable labor in the digging of the holes and when these furrows are lined out straight and the work properly done it is decidedly the most economical and best method. Afterwards you can enlarge the furrow directly where you are to plant the trees. You will find this a comparatively small job as most off the work will have been done with the plow. Dig the holes sufficiently large for the roots in their natural position, have the holes at least three feet in diameter and eighteen inches deep; fill in bottom of hole with rich soil and plant an inch deeper than the trees stood in the nursery row. The roots of the trees should never come in contact with the hard edge of the holes. They should have the soft soil in which to take hold of. Many trees that die are killed for the want 01 proper care in the preparation for planting. In fact the life and future of your trees depend largely on the care and attention bestowed on them when they are being placed in "Mother Earth." Use the surface soil directly about the roots; after the roots are well covered, firm the soil thoroughly with the use of the feet; do not place any manure next the roots. A shovel or two of fine manure may be put in the hole after the roots are well covered with the soil; then the hole can be filled level with the surface of the ground. In the absence of stable manure you can use to good advantage five pounds of unleached wood ashes to each tree, applying one-half of it on the soil directly after the roots are covered and the other half on the surface of the ground around the tree. In case you cannot get stable manure or wood ashes you can use any of the complete makes of commercial fertilizers, such as Mapes Fruit and Vine Manure which we have used for many years with good success. These manures can be used afterwards in large quantities according to the development and requirements of the trees. All roots of the trees that may have been mutilated with the spade or tree digger, should be made smooth with a sharp knife. This work is very important, and should not be neglected. After the trees are planted they should be properly and severely pruned back removing fully two-thirds of the wood and leader. In cutting off these branches look for a bud on the outside of the limb and cut back directly above this bud. We need hardly state that this pruning back at the time of planting is one of the most necessary and important requirements, and failure to attend to this small detail has been the direct and only cause for the loss of very many trees.