This section of the book is from the Guide To Hardy Fruits And Ornamentals book, by Thomas Joseph Dwyer, published in 1903.
These should be planted fifteen feet apart, and should be treated much the same as the Heart and Bigarreau. The trees are not near as large as the last mentioned family and can be planted closer together. In all cases these should be headed low down, or say within two feet of the ground. Dukes and Morrellos will come into bearing the second and third years after being planted, and are good, regular abundant fruiters. Of late years they are grown much more extensively for commercial orcharding than the other class, and from various reports received from a large territory they seem to be more profitable, except in the case of some of the Dukes, like the May Duke, the fruit of which is sub-acid and is, of course, used principally for preserving or canning. The fruit does not rot like the sweet species and can remain on the tree for two or three weeks after becoming ripe; this is a valuable privilege and one that is thoroughly appreciated at all times, more particularly on occasions when the market may be a little over supplied with fruit of this kind. The Dukes and Morrellos are not as susceptible to splitting of the bark and sun-scald as the Hearts and Bigarreaus, consequently they can be kept under constant, clean tillage, and this is a necessity to the best results. However, they will grow, endure and do fairly well when grown in sod ground, along fence lines and in odd corners. Our own experience with this family of cherries has been very interesting and at all times profitable and satisfactory. On many occasions and in different years have "wife" and myself gathered four and five quarts of this fruit from three year old trees from the bud. These need spraying the same as the family of sweets; they are, however practically immune from the Black Aphis. The list of varieties are such and so constituted in their order of ripening that we can produce fruit from this class from early in June until late in July. This is a valuable consideration whether the trees to be planted are for home use or for market, and we should select our list of sorts to cover the entire season. It should be our aim and purpose at all times to train these Dukes and Morellos low to the ground. This can be done in the pruning, and is readily accomplished with the Morrellos. It is a little more difficult, however, with the Dukes. It is characteristic of them to grow in a pyramidal shape, yet if they are started right and headed low down when first planted this tendency is readily overcome. It is important that they should be headed back and kept in subjection in order to prevent a large, heavy top growth, which invariably causes the leading branches, and in many instances, one side of the tree, to break down with its heavy load of foliage and fruit. During the past two years the writer has lost valuable trees of the May Duke and Late Duke from this neglect and indifference in the proper formation of the trees. We should grow and shape our Duke and Morrello trees that we can gather the greater portion of the fruit from the ground and the balance with the use of an ordinary step ladder. The list of good varieties of these cherries is rather limited, but fully equal and sufficient for our wants. We follow with a splendid list, and we are not exaggerating or making an assertion that cannot be maintained when we state that they are all good:
* Belle Magnifique
-- Fruit large, roundish; skin bright red; flesh tender, juicy, sprightly sub-acid; one of the finest of this class of cherries. Tree hardy, vigorous and very productive. Ripens last of July.
-- Partakes of both the Duke and Morrello in wood and fruit; a very early and sure bearer; ripens a week before Early Richmond, of better quality, and quite as productive. Ripens in June.
* Empress Eugenie
-- fruit large, dark red, very rich, tender and subacid. A superior variety. The trees are good, strong growers, combining the characteristics of the Duke and Morrello. They come into bearing early; season of fruit during July.
* Early Richmond
-- The most popular of all for commercial purposes and for home use; is being fruited and planted extensively; bears well every year. Medium size; dark red, melting juicy, sprightly acid flavor. This is one of the most valuable and popular of the acid cherries, and is unsurpassed for cooking purposes. Tree a slender grower, with a roundish, spreading head, and is exceedingly productive. The most hardy of all varieties, uninjured by the coldest winters, when almost every other variety has been killed. Ripens through June.
* English Merello
-- Medium to large, blackish red, rich, acid, juicy and good. A good companion for the Early Richmond; trees vigorous growers and regular fruiters; very prolific. One of the best we have for extending the season for fruit. Ripens during the month of July and in late exposures the fruit will remain on the tree until along in August.
* Large Montmorency
-- Very hardy and an immense bearer; commences to fruit while young, and is loaded annually thereafter with fine crops. Fruit very large, fine flavor, and of bright, clear, shining red; valuable everywhere. Ripens midway between Early Richmond and English Morello; trees strong growers.
* Late Duke
-- Fruit large; dark red, late and fine. Trees are early producers, prolific and good growers. Ripens late in July.
* Louis Phillippe
-- Extra hardy; vigorous grower and very productive; large size; rich dark red; flesh red, tender, juicy, with mild sub-acid flavor. A valuable variety that is being planted largely; valuable for all purposes. Ripens in July.
* May Duke
-- Large, dark red, juicy and rich, and an excellent variety; productive. The May Duke comes into bearing as early as any of the Dukes or Morellos; it is a vigorous grower and makes an abundance of wood each season; the fruit is pleasing to the eye and of fine rich sub-acid flavor; delicious for eating and the choicest for canning. It ripens early in May, which is a desired quality.
-- This variety is of the greatest value. Fruit large; flesh red, with rose-colored juice, tender, rich and vinous, with mild sub-acid flavor. As productive as the best of the Duke sorts, and probably the largest of this class. Ripens in June and is largely grown for the leading markets.