Celeriac Or Turnip-Rooted Celery (Apium Graveolens, Var. Rapaceum)

395. Culture

This umbelliferous plant belongs to the celery species. The root is the edible part. It is used for flavoring, as a salad and for cooking, like other root crops. The roots vary in size from 2 to 4 inches, They may be stored during the winter under the same conditions as beets or turnips. This vegetable is of minor importance in America. It is used more largely in foreign countries, especially in Germany.

Its culture is practically the same as for celery. The early crop may be started under glass and transplanted to the open when there is little danger of severe frosts. As the plants are not blanched, less space is needed between rows than for celery when banked with earth. For the late crop, sow in the open at the same time as for late celery and transplant where the crop is to mature. Soil thrown over the roots in the fall will whiten and protect them until early winter, when they may be stored.

Celery (Apium Graveolens)

396. History

The wild celery is native to southern England, Europe and Asia. Very little is known concerning its early history, but it was probably not cultivated until after the Middle Ages. The many varieties of merit now in cultivation are the developments of comparatively recent years. As late as 1880 this vegetable was unknown to many American people and very little was grown for commercial purposes. It was then regarded as a luxury, selling at very high prices, for use in garnishing and flavoring, as well as for salad purposes.

397. Importance

Celery as a food and as a relish was not fully appreciated until within the past few years. It is now universally regarded as one of our most important vegetables. Immense quantities are grown for commercial purposes and no home garden is complete without it. Its uses are varied: the leaves are excellent for garnishing and seasoning; the seeds impart a pleasant flavor to soups, salads, pickles and other dishes; the thick, fleshy leaf stems are especially valued during fall and winter, when meats are used so generally and when other salad crops are not so plentiful as earlier in the season; the stalks are also cut into short pieces and cooked, seasoned with cream and butter and served like salsify or asparagus. It is one of our most wholesome and palatable vegetables, although the nutritive value is not high.

Thousands of cars of celery are grown annually in the muck soils of the large producing districts. The most extensive areas devoted to this crop are in the Great Lake region. Thousands of acres of muck lands are used annually for celery culture in Michigan, Ohio and New York. The industry has also become of great importance in California and Florida. With the varied climatic conditions of the different states which are producing celery on a large scale, our markets are well supplied during most of the year. Eastern growers as well as western producers begin marketing in July or earlier and continue to supply the trade until January. Florida and California crops are ready the latter part of December and meet the demands until late in the spring.

Intensive market gardeners of the North consider celery one of their most profitable crops, and with the overhead system of irrigation its culture is being rapidly extended.

398. Botany

Celery belongs to the family of plants known as Apiace*. The botanists formerly classed this vegetable under umbellifer*. It is usually biennial, although, if seed is sown too early and the plants are checked in growth, they may produce flowers the first year This is sometimes a source of heavy losses in large plantations of early celery. The flower stalk is 2 to 3 feet high, branched and leafy; the flowers are white, inconspicuous and borne in compound umbels; the seeds are very small and flattened on the side; the leaf stalks are 6 to 15 inches long and bear three pairs and a terminal leaflet coarsely serrate and ternately lobed or divided. The wild plants have an acrid, pungent flavor.

399. Varieties

There are two general classes of celery, namely, the green varieties and the so-called self-blanching varieties. The self-blanching class did not appear until 1884, or a few years earlier in trial grounds. It has revolutionized commercial celery culture, for probably 90 per cent of the crop now produced for market belongs to this type. Since the plants are easily blanched by means of boards, the rows may be much closer together than for green sorts, and, therefore, possibilities are very much greater. The self-blanching character is the result of breeding and selection. Although commercial possibilities have been increased, the plants have lost in constitutional vigor, being less hardy and resistant to disease, and have also deteriorated in quality.

White Plume was introduced in 1884 and of the self-blanching varieties was for several years grown most largely. It still finds favor among many commercial growers. The stalks are tall and require very little artificial blanching, but in quality it is somewhat inferior to Golden Self-Blanching.

Golden Self-Blanching is by far the most extensively grown variety in all sections, early and late and for all purposes. It attains a height of 14 to 20 inches. The plants are stocky and compact, the foliage is abundant, and the stems short, thick, and easily blanched to a creamy white. It is the most important commercial variety.

Rose Ribbed Golden Self-Blanching is similar to the Golden Self-Blanching except that it has a tinge of rose color on the ribbing of the stems.

Giant Pascal is an old green-stem variety, valued for its long stems and high quality. The plants in rich, moist soils grow to the height of 30 inches or more, making blanching rather difficult, It is planted only a$ a late variety.