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Vegetable Gardening | by Ralph L. Watts



In the preparation of this volume the author has had a twofold purpose, first, to meet the demands of instructors desiring a textbook on vegetable gardening and, second, to present in an organized form data of value to all classes of vegetable growers.

TitleVegetable Gardening
AuthorRalph L. Watts
PublisherOrange Judd Company
Year1912
Copyright1912, Orange Judd Company
AmazonVegetable Gardening
-Preface
In the preparation of this volume the author has had a twofold purpose, first, to meet the demands of instructors desiring a textbook on vegetable gardening and, second, to present in an organized for...
-Chapter I. A General View
1. Vegetable Gardening, Or Olericulture Vegetable Gardening, Or Olericulture, is the art of growing the crops which are commonly known as vegetables. The term vegetable is usually applied to the ed...
-A General View. Part 2
7. Profits The profits in vegetable gardening are quite variable. In some instances they are so large that people are loath to believe the accounts, while in others the net returns are trifling. Cons...
-A General View. Part 3
The number of men to the acre is determined by (1) type of gardening, (2) tools available and (3) method of marketing. In the most intensive market gardening one man to the acre can be profitably empl...
-Chapter II. Selection Of Location
11. Markets The most important factor to consider in the selection of a location for a general line of trucking or market gardening is the opportunity to dispose of the produce in a satisfactory mann...
-Selection Of Location. Continued
17. Windbreaks Every experienced fruit grower knows the advantages of windbreaks. At Norfolk, Va., windbreaks of trees are extensively planted. They are especially valuable in the protection of field...
-Chapter III. Soils
25. Classification Of Soils The Bureau of Soils of the United States Department of Agriculture has established a system of soil classification which should be familiar to every student of vegetable g...
-Soils. Part 2
40. Hempstead Loam This soil is of interest to vegetable growers because it is used to a considerable extent on Long Island. It is regarded as a fair soil for late truck. 41. Muck And Peat In Flori...
-Soils. Part 3
59. Soil Texture It will be seen from a study of various soil types cited that the value of a soil for trucking purposes is determined largely by its texture. The value of a soil for very early truck...
-Chapter IV. Tillage And Tillage Tools
65. The Object Of Tillage So far as soil management is concerned, tillage is the most important operation in vegetable gardening. Both yield and quality are largely determined by the character of the...
-Tillage And Tillage Tools. Continued
The efficiency of harrowing depends not only upon the adaptation of the implement to the work to be performed, but also upon the moisture content of the soil at the time of operation. If too dry, a la...
-Chapter V. Stable Manures
75. Extent Used Stable manures are universally regarded as the most valuable fertilizing materials for the growing of all classes of vegetables upon all types of soils. This is a very broad statement...
-Stable Manures. Part 2
83. Cost Of Horse Manure Prices paid for horse manure vary considerably. A Long IsIand market gardener is paid over $400 a year to remove the manure daily (except Sunday) from a stable feeding a grea...
-Stable Manures. Part 3
87. Time Of Application The proper time of application depends upon the age, the texture and the kind of manure, the crops to be grown, and the systems and the rotations to be followed. In the growin...
-Chapter VI. Green Manures And Cover Crops
91. As A Source Of Humus It has been previously indicated (76) that humus in large amounts is essential to success in every line of vegetable gardening and that stable manure supplies it in the best ...
-Chapter VII. Commercial Fertilizers
104. Necessity Of Commercial Fertilizers It is not uncommon to find market gardens managed successfully without the use of commercial fertilizers. In all such cases stable manures and perhaps night s...
-Commercial Fertilizers. Part 2
Nitrogen may be supplied in various other forms: Raw or steamed bone may furnish 3 to 6 per cent of nitrogen, although the nitrogen in this form becomes available very slowly; dried blood, which conta...
-Commercial Fertilizers. Part 3
110. The Use Of Lime The necessity of lime has been indicated in previous paragraphs. Malnutrition disease may become serious when lime is not used or when soils become acid. In vegetable gardening i...
-Chapter VIII. Irrigation
115. The Extent Of Irrigation Irrigation has been developed to a great extent in arid and semi-arid regions of the West, but not until recent years have intensive growers in the East taken a general ...
-Irrigation. Part 2
The New Jersey Station (N. J. Sta. Bul. 115) reports the following interesting results: For beans, in terms of good-sized pods, the average yield of the nine non-irrigated belts was 17 pounds and 1 o...
-Irrigation. Part 3
Theoretically, this is a fairly good system of watering. There is smaller loss by evaporation from the surface than with any other system; there is less baking of the soil and the least amount of till...
-Chapter IX. Insect Enemies And Diseases
123. Importance Of Controlling Garden Pests The annual loss in the United States to vegetable crops from the depredations of insects and diseases amounts to millions of dollars. Practical growers, ec...
-Insect Enemies And Diseases. Continued
130. Paris Green Paris Green, a stomach poison which has been used extensively for many years in combating chewing insects. In order to prevent injury to foliage, it is always desirable to add some l...
-Chapter X. Seeds And Seed Growing
139. Importance Of Planting Good Seed Complete success in vegetable gardening is not possible without good seed. The planting of good seed is one of the essentials, and is just as important as proper...
-Seeds And Seed Growing. Part 2
In the management of seed growing by contract, various methods are employed. In many instances stock seed is furnished to the grower by the seed house or by the man with whom the grower has contracted...
-Seeds And Seed Growing. Part 3
After fermentation, the seeds are separated from the pulp and the skin by washing as often as may be required to obtain clean seeds. The good seeds settle to the bottom of the vessel, while pulp, skin...
-Chapter XI. Construction Of Hotbeds
152. The Necessity Of Glass In nearly all types of vegetable gardening glass is essential to secure the best returns. It is true that many crops, as sweet corn, cabbage, peas, beans and the root crop...
-Construction Of Hotbeds. Part 2
The upper or north side of the frame should be 6 inches higher than the lower or south side, in order to give the proper slope. This can be easily accomplished by using boards of 6 and 12-inch widths....
-Construction Of Hotbeds. Part 3
158. Manure And Its Preparation Practically all manure hotbeds are made with horse manure. Poultry and sheep manures are also desirable, although they are too valuable in fertilizing garden crops to ...
-Chapter XII. Construction Of Cold Frames
164. Location And Arrangement Cold frames are generally used without artificial heat. It is important that they be well sheltered from north and west winds. As a rule they are used later in the sprin...
-Chapter XIII. Construction Of Greenhouses
171. Extent Used Greenhouses are in far more general use among market gardeners than they were 10 or 15 years ago. They have become especially numerous near railroad lines affording satisfactory ship...
-Construction Of Greenhouses. Part 2
176. Semi-Iron Type Of Construction This is by far the most popular form of construction. The walls are usually concrete, and the 2-inch pipe posts which support the roof of the house are often embed...
-Construction Of Greenhouses. Part 3
182. Ventilators Provision must be made for ample ventilation. The most approved plan is to have a line of vents on both sides of the ridge. If devices are used to prevent the ventilating sash from ...
-Chapter XIV. Seed Sowing
188. Soil Selection And Preparation Oxygen, heat and moisture are the requirements for germination, but successful results are largely dependent upon proper soil selection and preparation. Many ...
-Seed Sowing. Part 2
195. Soaking Seeds The soaking of seeds before sowing is of doubtful value. It may be the means of hastening germination a few days, although sowing earlier will accomplish the same purpose. When ...
-Chapter XV. Transplanting
202. Reasons For Transplanting There are many important reasons for transplanting: (1) Some crops can be matured much earlier by starting the plants in hotbeds or greenhouses, transplanting in about ...
-Transplanting. Part 2
Fig. 31. Popular Marker. Fig. 32. Homemade Marker. If the rows are to be 1 foot apart, adjust the teeth to this distance, and stretch a line along one side of the plat to be planted. If the land...
-Transplanting. Part 3
Fig. 38. Cabbage Plant Ready For Transplanting. Field planting can be done very rapidly by boys when the force is properly organized. If the foreman is patient, boys can soon be taught to use dibbe...
-Chapter XVI. Growing Early Vegetable Plants Under Glass
211. Soil Supply Soils for growing early vegetable plants should absorb water readily and dry quickly on the surface. A sandy loam furnishes ideal conditions. Heavier soils can be improved by the ...
-Growing Early Vegetable Plants Under Glass. Part 2
Shutters are sometimes used instead of mats in covering frames. They may be made of light lumber and may be of any convenient size. When used alone on frames they do not protect the plants nearly as w...
-Growing Early Vegetable Plants Under Glass. Part 3
218. The Use Of Mats Mats are essential in the frame culture of early vegetable plants in the North, although double glass sash are used without mats in the milder sections. Mats should be placed on ...
-Chapter XVII. Marketing
221. Modern Methods The commercial grower desires, of course, to make maximum profits. He has for years been acting upon the assumption that if he produces a large crop of the best quality and ...
-Marketing. Part 2
Fig. 44. Cart Used Near Boston For Collecting Vegetables. 224. Facilities For Packing Vegetables are sometimes packed in the field where grown, when they do not need to be washed or handled very muc...
-Marketing. Part 3
Fig. 45. Popular Packages. a Well-braced t-bushel basket; b, 2 or 4-quart basket, one of the best retail packages c, half-bushel basket with cover. (3) Is the package a satisfactory carrier? Do the...
-Marketing. Part 4
228. Packing There are three main considerations in the packing of vegetables after they have been cleaned and graded and a desirable package selected. (1) The appearance of the product must be ...
-Marketing. Part 5
Fig. 54. Long Island Market Wagon. Figure 55 shows a wagon which is especially convenient for retailing. Market wagons should be planned with the utmost care, size and style being the first essentia...
-Marketing. Part 6
H. B. Fullerton of Long Island has developed a plan of shipping to consumers in large cities, mainly New York. Figure 50 shows the Long Island hamper packed with an assortment of vegetables. The two l...
-Chapter XVIII. Co-Operative Associations
238. History Co-operative associations among commercial vegetable growers have been developed mainly within the past 15 years, for with the rapid extension of the gardening industry co-operation has ...
-Chapter XIX. The Storage Of Vegetables
252. Does Storing Pay? The storing of vegetables often requires a large amount of extra labor in handling the crops; many necessary facilities must be provided; there is always more or less ...
-Chapter XX. The Classification Of Vegetables
260. Methods Of Classification The grouping of vegetables gives the student a better understanding of the character, requirements and uses of the various crops. The arrangement based solely upon ...
-Chapter XXI. Cultural Directions. Artichoke, Asparagus
Artichoke - Globe (Cynara Scolymus) 262. Uses The globe artichoke is seldom found in American gardens. The edible parts are the base of the flower heads and the midribs of the large blanched leaves;...
-Cultural Directions. Artichoke, Asparagus. Part 2
From early March until August this vegetable may be found on our city markets, and the forced crop is available to some extent throughout the winter. Nearly everybody enjoys this vegetable. Formerly i...
-Cultural Directions. Artichoke, Asparagus. Part 3
The seed should not be harvested until fully ripe. When gathered in wholesale lots without the careful selection which has been described, the plants are cut, hung in the dry for a few days and then t...
-Cultural Directions. Artichoke, Asparagus. Part 4
The difficulty with any method of propagation is that the sex of the plant cannot be determined until the plants produce flowers, and this does not occur until the second season, when the plants are u...
-Cultural Directions. Artichoke, Asparagus. Part 5
Very few garden crops can be fertilized as heavily as asparagus and a profit be made on every dollar expended for plant food. Many of the most successful growers believe that the largest net returns c...
-Cultural Directions. Artichoke, Asparagus. Part 6
After having decided upon the distance between rows, an ordinary moldboard plow is used to make the trenches for planting. A furrow slice is thrown on each side of the furrow. It is often necessary to...
-Cultural Directions. Artichoke, Asparagus. Part 7
In very cool weather it may not be necessary to cut more than twice a week, but when the season is well advanced and the weather is warm, this work must be attended to daily and sometimes twice a day ...
-Cultural Directions. Artichoke, Asparagus. Part 8
The beetles winter under any convenient shelter and lay eggs for the first brood in April or May. The eggs are deposited in groups of two or more, upon leaves or stems. The larvae emerge in three to e...
-Bean
Bean (Vicia, Phaseolus) 288. History The Broad bean (Vicia faba), believed to have originated in southwestern Asia, was known in ancient times. It is produced largely in Europe for stock feeding, an...
-Bean. Part 2
Wardwell Kidney Wax, introduced 25 years ago, is a large flat-podded variety, which is popular on many markets. The pods are very attractive. Pencil-Pod Black Wax, the best of the black wax group, is...
-Bean. Part 3
303. Soils The first requisite of soil is thorough drainage; the second is a moderate amount of organic matter. Some varieties of beans will grow and mature light crops in poor soils, but high ...
-Bean. Part 4
The depth of planting should be regulated by the character of the soil; in heavy soils 1« inches is ample, while 2 to 3 is not too deep in the lighter soils. For planting, one-half bushel of the smal...
-Bean. Part 5
There is an almost universal agreement among practical growers and plant pathologists that this crop should never be cultivated when the plants are wet from dew or rain. The Cornell Station (Cornell S...
-Beet
Beet (Beta Vulgaris) 318. History And Importance The plant from which the various types of beets have been originated is native to the seacoast of South Europe. Cultivated forms have been grown for ...
-Beet. Continued
The distance between plants in the row should be governed by the variety and the size of beets desired for market. In planting small-topped varieties, to be sold when the roots are 1« to 2 inches in ...
-Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts
Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea, Var. Botrytis) 328. Character Botanically, broccoli closely resembles cauliflower, although the heads are usually smaller. In England, where many varieties are grown, th...
-Cabbage
334. History In its wild state the cabbage is found on the sea cliffs of western and southern Europe and on the coasts of the English Channel. It has been known from earliest antiquity and was ...
-Cabbage. Part 2
339. Flat Dutch Or Drumhead Group Of the flat cabbages Early Spring is regarded as the earliest and most valuable variety. Some markets prefer this type to the conical, and if earliness is the most ...
-Cabbage. Part 3
344. The Volga Group Volga (Figure 68) is the only variety belonging to the group. It is highly recommended by many seedsmen and some growers are enthusiastic concerning its merits. The heads are ...
-Cabbage. Part 4
347. Climate It is well known that cabbage thrives best in a cool, moist climate. For this reason its culture is largely confined to northern districts. When grown in the South, outside of the ...
-Cabbage. Part 5
351. Sowing Where The Plants Are To Mature Some growers prefer sowing where the plants are to mature. The two main advantages are that the expense of transplanting is avoided and there is no ...
-Cabbage. Part 6
355. Planting Distances The proper distance between plants depends upon the variety, purpose of the crop, fertility of the soil, and methods of cultivating, spraying and harvesting. Early varieties, ...
-Cabbage. Part 7
360. Marketing As previously stated, southern cabbage is nearly always sold by the crate or the barrel, and these methods are common among growers in the North. The crate is the best package because ...
-Cabbage. Part 8
Some farmers store a few hundred heads of cabbage in the house cellar. If this can be kept cool, moist and properly ventilated, the results are generally satisfactory. Most cellars, however, are not f...
-Cabbage. Part 9
362. Yields And Returns Yields vary from a few tons to 25 tons an acre; even larger yields have been secured from small areas of high fertility. With approved methods it should not be less than 15 ...
-Cabbage. Part 10
365. The Imported Cabbage Worm (Pontia Rapae) The Imported Cabbage Worm (Pontia Rapae) is generally recognized to be the most important insect enemy of cabbage and several closely related crops. The ...
-Cabbage. Part 11
368. Black Rot (Pseudomonas Campestris) This bacterial rot is very generally disseminated, frequently spreading over large areas in cabbage-growing districts, and causing heavy losses. The disease ...
-Carrot
Carrot (Daucus Carota) 371. History And Importance The carrot, a native to Europe, has been in cultivation for 2,000 years. This vegetable is far more appreciated by Europeans than by Americans. It ...
-Cauliflower
Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea, Var. Botrytis) 380. History Cauliflower is of European origin and has probably been developed from broccoli. It is generally regarded as the most refined and the most...
-Celeriac Or Turnip-Rooted Celery, Celery
Celeriac Or Turnip-Rooted Celery (Apium Graveolens, Var. Rapaceum) 395. Culture This umbelliferous plant belongs to the celery species. The root is the edible part. It is used for flavoring, as a sa...
-Celeriac Or Turnip-Rooted Celery, Celery. Part 2
Winter Queen is another popular, largely grown late variety. It doe's not attain as great a height as Giant Pascal, and is more convenient to store. French Success is a stocky, compact winter variety...
-Celeriac Or Turnip-Rooted Celery, Celery. Part 3
Celery seed, being very small and slow to germinate, must be provided with the best conditions in the seed bed. The soil should be fine, moist and not given to baking. Muck is excellent when available...
-Celeriac Or Turnip-Rooted Celery, Celery. Part 4
Stable manures are undoubtedly the best fertilizers for celery, because they not only supply plant food, but also humus. Irrespective of soil type or location, all growers use manure if it can be obta...
-Celeriac Or Turnip-Rooted Celery, Celery. Part 5
408. Cultivation The ground should be cultivated as soon as possible after transplanting, precaution being taken not to throw any soil on the hearts of the plants. As celery is a shallow-rooted crop,...
-Celeriac Or Turnip-Rooted Celery, Celery. Part 6
Fig. 78. Celery Blanched With Boards. Paper may also be used in blanching. A machine has been devised which first places a strip of paper against the row and then throws soil against the paper. The i...
-Celeriac Or Turnip-Rooted Celery, Celery. Part 7
Other home gardeners store in cellars. The plan is successful in the absence of furnaces and heating pipes, for the room must be kept cool and moist. The plants are simply set close together with some...
-Chard, Chicory, Chive, Collard, Corn Salad, Cress
Chard (Beta Vulgaris) 418. Character And Uses This vegetable is also known as Swiss chard, silver beet and leaf beet. The leaves are thick and broad and the leaf stalks large and fleshy. (Figure 81....
-Cucumber
Cucumber (Cucumis Sativis) 430. History And Importance The cucumber is one of the oldest of our cultivated vegetables. It has been cultivated in India for at least 3,000 years, but according to DeCa...
-Cucumber. Continued
Excessive amounts of nitrogen must be avoided in the commercial fertilizers. Four per cent is probably as much as should be used on any soil, but additional applications of nitrate of soda may be made...
-Dandelion, Dill, Eggplant
Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) 445. Importance The wild dandelion is frequently used as greens, but the leaves are much inferior to those of cultivated varieties, which are larger and often cut or...
-Dandelion, Dill, Eggplant. Continued
An excellent plan is to make several shifts. The plants may first be set in flats, the seedlings spaced 2 inches apart each way. Later they may be set in 3-inch pots, and finally transferred to 5 or 6...
-Endive, Garlic, Horse-Radish
Endive (Cichorium Endiva) 461. Importance This plant, which is probably native to East India, is produced more extensively for European than for American markets. It is not generally grown in the ho...
-Endive, Garlic, Horse-Radish. Continued
471. Propagation The plant is propagated from root cuttings made from the laterals removed when the roots are trimmed or prepared for market. The longest pieces produce the largest roots. They ...
-Kale Or Borecole, Kohl-Rabi, Leek
Kale Or Borecole (Brassica Oleracea Acephala) 475. History And Importance Kale is grown extensively near Norfolk, Va., and to some extent on Long Island. Market gardeners occasionally grow small qua...
-Lettuce
Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa) 487. History This species, which has never been found in the wild state, is thought to be a modification of Lactuca scariola, which is indigenous to parts of Europe. Asia an...
-Lettuce. Continued
491. Soil Warm, sandy soils when properly fertilized are preferable for growing the very early crop; sandy loams furnish the best conditions for all classes of lettuce. Head lettuce never thrives in ...
-Martynia, Mint, Muskmelon
Martynia (Martynia Proboscidea) 501. Importance This annual is a native of the southwestern United States. The coarse plants have a spreading habit and produce fruit of the peculiar shape shown in F...
-Martynia, Mint, Muskmelon. Part 2
Netted Gem See Rocky Ford. Emerald Gem Fruit of this variety is small, globular, ribbed, lightly netted, dark green; flesh green; quality very good. Jersey Belle resembles Jenny Lind, but is large...
-Martynia, Mint, Muskmelon. Part 3
512. Starting Early Plants The general custom is to plant the seed in the field, but as this cannot be done until the ground is thoroughly warm and there is no further danger of frost, many growers ...
-Martynia, Mint, Muskmelon. Part 4
Numerous and comprehensive experiments were made in Georgia (Ga. Sta. Bul. 57, pp. 163-175), the station making the following recommendation: For South Georgia, 1,000 pounds acid phosphate (14 per cen...
-Martynia, Mint, Muskmelon. Part 5
517. Marketing The time of picking depends mainly upon the distance from market. If to be sold locally, the melons should be allowed to ripen fully on the vine. When for distant shipment, the usual ...
-Martynia, Mint, Muskmelon. Part 6
521. The Montreal Melons It is believed that the Montreal muskmelons could be grown in various parts of the country were the proper care exercised in their culture. The Vermont Experiment Station (...
-Mustard, Okra Or Gumbo, Onion
Mustard (Brassica) 522. Importance Mustard is a member of the cabbage family. It is used as a salad plant, often with cress, and also for greens. The seeds are used in the manufacture of the mustard...
-Mustard, Okra Or Gumbo, Onion. Part 2
Strasburg (Philadelphia Yellow Dutch) produces a somewhat flattened bulb. The variety is widely grown for sets. Weathersfield has long been a popular red onion, and is valued for shipment to distant ...
-Mustard, Okra Or Gumbo, Onion. Part 3
533. Soil Preparation The method of soil preparation will depend mainly upon the character of the soil, and the crops previously grown. Fall plowing is often an advantage, especially for pastures, ...
-Mustard, Okra Or Gumbo, Onion. Part 4
In fairly heavy soil the seeds should be covered with not more than « an inch of soil. Three-fourths of an inch is sufficient in most soils, while 1 inch or more will do no harm in very sandy types. ...
-Mustard, Okra Or Gumbo, Onion. Part 5
538. Cultivation As the onion is a shallow-rooted plant, care must be taken not to injure the roots by deep tillage. When hard rains incrust the soil before seeds have germinated, light raking or ...
-Mustard, Okra Or Gumbo, Onion. Part 6
Fig. 94. Onion Storage House. The temperature of the storage house should be carried as low as possible without actual freezing. During extremely cold weather the ventilator openings and doors shoul...
-Mustard, Okra Or Gumbo, Onion. Part 7
With the crowded condition of the bulbs they mature earlier than if they had ample space. At Louisville harvesting begins in July and extends into August. The work is begun when one-third to one-half ...
-Parsley, Parsnip, Pea
Parsley (Carum Petroselinum) 550. Importance This biennial umbellifer, found wild in the south of Europe, was introduced into the English gardens in 1548. The crop is of limited commercial importanc...
-Extra Early Smooth Peas, Extra Early Wrinkled Peas, Medium And Late Peas
Extra Early Smooth Peas Alaska is the most extensively grown for canning. The vines are 20 to 30 inches in height. The peas mature practically at one time. Uniformity in time of maturing is exceeding...
-Pepper, Mild-Fruited Varieties, Pumpkin, Radish
Pepper (Capsicum Annuum) 564. History According to De Candolle, the pepper probably originated in Brazil. It is now grown in many countries in nearly all parts of the world. 565. Importance The pe...
-Rhubarb, Rutabaga
Rhubarb (Rheum Rhaponticum) 583. History And Importance Rhubarb is indigenous to eastern Asia. It belongs to the buckwheat family, Polygonace*, and is a highly popular herbaceous perennial vegetabl...
-Sage, Salsify, Savory, Shallot, Spinach
Sage (Salvia Officinalis) 592. Importance Sage is a shrubby perennial, the fresh and dried leaves of which are used extensively for flavoring meats. 593. Culture It is propagated by cuttings, laye...
-Squash, Sweet Corn
Squash 602. History There is considerable uncertainty as to the origin of the squash. Cucurbita Pepo and C. maxima are believed to be natives of tropical America, although they are not known in a wi...
-Squash, Sweet Corn. Continued
612. Midseason Varieties Some of the best early varieties are often planted in succession to meet the demands of midsummer. When this is not desired the following second early varieties may be ...
-Sweet Potato
Sweet Potato (I Pomoea Batatas) 623. History There is no definite knowledge of the origin of the sweet potato, although it is believed the plant is native to the West Indies and Central America. 62...
-Sweet Potato. Part 2
Florida The vines of the Florida variety are large and vigorous. The potatoes are rather large, light salmon yellow, smooth and regular, of short spindle shape, with light yellow flesh. This variety ...
-Sweet Potato. Part 3
Pipe-heated beds are popular in some sections. Beat-tie (U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bul. 324, p. 12) gives the following description of this method: Where a steam or hot water boiler is in use for greenhou...
-Sweet Potato. Part 4
Stable manures are sometimes used in sweet potato culture. They are most valuable on thin lands deficient in vegetable matter. It is better, however, to apply them to a hoed crop the previous year, bu...
-Tomato
Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum) 642. History The tomato is native to South America. It was grown by the aborigines. There is abundant evidence that the varieties first cultivated in European countr...
-Tomato. Part 2
For the early crop, location and exposure should be carefully considered. Protection from the north and west winds is a great advantage and southern slopes favor early maturity. 647. Varieties Varie...
-Tomato. Part 3
4. Sow 10 to 11 weeks before field planting, and make at least three shifts in flats, beds or preferably pots, the space or the size of the pots being increased each time until the plants stand 7 to 1...
-Tomato. Part 4
654. Cultivation Clean tillage is essential to large fruits and high yields. Some hand hoeing is required, although this work will be slight if the plants are set in check rows. 655. Training The ...
-Thyme, Turnip, Watermelon
Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris) 641. Culture Thyme (Figure 105) is a popular herb used for seasoning. It may be propagated by means of seeds, root divisions and layers. The plants should stand about 6 inche...
-Turnip, Watermelon. Continued
673. Soil A sandy soil well adapted to muskmelons (510) is equally suitable for watermelons. A sandy top soil with a well-drained subsoil is considered ideal. 674. Seed The most successful growers ...
-Chapter XXII. Crop Rotation
682. The Necessity Crop rotation has long been recognized as a necessity. Its value has been more evident, perhaps, in the production of cereals and the general farm crops than in vegetable growing, ...
-Chapter XXIII. Succession And Companion Cropping
689. Succession Cropping Market gardening and home vegetable gardening are necessarily intensive forms of cropping. The work should be planned so that there will be no loss of space nor loss of time....
-Succession And Companion Cropping. Continued
9. Beet And Late Cabbage 2' ..................Beet and cabbage................. ....................Beet........................... .........................Beet ...
-Chapter XXIV. The Home Vegetable Garden
692. Importance The home vegetable garden is an important feature on practically every American farm. Thousands of village people devote part of their lots to the growing of vegetables for the ...
-Chapter XXV. Tables
699. Vitality Of Seeds See page 102. 700. Percentage Of Germination See page 101. 701. Number Of Plants Required To The Acre At Various Distances 1 in. 10 in. - 627,269. ...
-Chapter XXVI. Suggestions On Laboratory Work
704. Importance A course in vegetable gardening cannot be fully satisfactory without suitable laboratory work accompanying the lectures or recitations. Laboratory work is essential for three reasons:...









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