For instance, a common way of killing ferns is to keep the roots and soil wet and the air and fronds dry, whereas the natural habitats provide for wet and shaded fronds and well-drained soil.

It may be noted here that in most cases where gardeners speak of plants being killed under the "drip" of trees - e.g. Beech, the injury is due, not to the effects of water but to the shade: the loss of light is so great that the shaded plants die of inanition because their leaves are not able to provide sufficient carbohydrates.

Closely bound up with this is the question of the gases in soils. Apart from the disastrous effects of poisons - e.g. coal gas escaping from pipes under pavements in towns, etc., diseased conditions often result from deficiency of oxygen at the root-hairs, due to imperfect aeration of soils, brought about by stagnant water, excess of animal matter, and so forth.

Unsuitable constitution of the atmosphere is also a fruitful source of disease, though its effects are commoner in closed stoves and greenhouses than in the open. Nevertheless the continual exhalation of sulphurous fumes, chlorine, and other poisonous gases in the neighbourhood of manufacturing centres or of large smoky towns, volcanoes, etc., play their part in injuring plants; and excessive moisture in the form of mist, rain, etc., is also important. All these matters bring us at once into the region of physiology, and only an intelligent appreciation of what is known about the action of the atmosphere on the soil and the plant will save the peasantry of a country from a hopeless mysticism but little removed from that of the Middle Ages, when blights and other evils were vaguely referred to the river-mists, thunder clouds, and easterly winds.

If we summarise the above as the material factors of the environment, we may classify another set of external non-living causes of disease as the non-material factors. Such are principally the following:

The space at the disposal of plants greatly affects their welfare. The crowding of roots in the soil and of foliage in the air, resulting in the loss of light to the leaves, involves deficiency of all the materials referred to above - minerals, organic materials, gases, and water - and no better illustration of the intense struggle for existence among these apparently passive and motionless beings, plants, can be given than an over-crowded seedbed or plantation. If left to themselves such over-stocked areas exhibit to the keen eye of the trained observer all the phases of starvation, weakness, wounding, rot, and, so to speak, brutal dominance of the stronger over the weaker which it is the object of cultivation to prevent. Here, then, we are brought face to face with the true significance of thinning and weeding out, pruning, and similar processes.

Unsuitable temperature is one of the commonest of all sources of disease, for every plant is adapted to certain ranges of temperature, and best adapted to a given optimum somewhere between the maximum and minimum temperature for each function. Consequently any serious departure from the mean may bring about physiological disturbances of the nature of disease, and this in very various ways, as exemplified by the results of frost, sun-scorching, drought, hail-storms, forest fires, and so forth.

As a predisposing factor to disease abnormal temperature effects play a great part. Many wound-fungi gain their entrance through frost-cracks, bruises due to hailstones, or into tissues chilled below the normal.

No less remarkable are the diseases primarily due to insufficient or improper exposure to light, which affects the chlorophyll-apparatus and the process of carbon-assimilation and through these the whole well-being of the plant. Every plant is adapted to certain ranges of light intensity, and most cultivators know how impossible it is to grow shade plants in fully exposed situations, and how easily plants which live in open sunny situations are "drawn" and killed by shade. It is equally important to have the right kind of light, as disastrous experiences with greenhouses glazed with glass which cut off certain rays of light have taught. Here, again, it is important to notice that the optimum intensity or quality of light may differ for different functions and organs of the plant, as is shown by many adaptations on the part of species growing in natural situations - e.g. bud protection, orientation of leaves, etc. - and it may be taken as a rule that etiolated plants are peculiarly susceptible to other diseases.

As regards other factors of the inorganic environment, disasters which come within the scope of our subject may be brought about by many agencies, the mechanical effects of snow and hail, wind, avalanches, etc., the effects of lightning, and so forth, being a few of them.

Notes to Chapter 11

For other detailed classifications of the causes of disease the reader is referred to the works of Sorauer and of Frank referred to in the last chapter. Also Kirchner, Pflanzen Krankheiten, Stuttgart, 1890.

Of more historical importance are the older classifications of Berkeley, Gardeners' Chro?iicle, 1854, and Re, Gardeners' Chronicle, 1849 - 50. These latter are interesting as showing the very different views held by the earlier workers, and comparison of these with the modern views helps to mark the progress of physiology during the half century which has intervened.