Knife-wounds. - Artificial cuts in stems are easily recognised and soon heal up unless disturbed. Several cases, differing in complexity, are to be distinguished. The simplest is that of a longitudinal, oblique, or horizontal short cut in which the point of the knife severs all the tissues of the stem down to the wood. The first effect usually observed is that the wound gapes, especially if longitudinal, because the cortex, tightly stretched on the wood cylinder, contracts elastically. This exposes the living cortex, phloem and cambium to the air, and such tissues at once behave as already described above: the cells actually cut die, those next below grow out under the released pressure, and these give rise to cells which become cork. As the growth and cell-division continue in the cells below this thin elastic cork-layer, they form a soft herbaceous cushion or callus looking like a thickened lip to each margin of the cut. Each lip soon meets its opposite neighbour, and the wound is closed over, a slight projection with a median axial depression alone appearing on the surface. The depression contains the trapped-in callus-cork squeezed more and more in the plane of the cut as the two lips of callus press one against the other, and sections across the stem and perpendicular to the axis of the cut show that this thin cork, like a bit of brown paper, alone intervenes between the cambium, phloem and cortex respectively of each lip, as each layer attempts to bridge over the interval. If the healing proceeds normally, these layers, each pressing against the trapped cork-film, and growing more and more in thickness, shear the cork-layer and tear its cells asunder, and very soon we find odd cells of the cambium of one lip meeting cambium cells of the other, phloem meeting phloem, and cortex cortex, and the normal thickening of the now fused layers previously separated by the knife goes on as if nothing had happened, the only external sign of the wound being a slight ridge-like elevation, and, internally, traces of the dead cells and cork trapped here and there beneath the ridge. When the conjoined cambium resumes the develop ment of a continuous layer of xylem and phloem, no further trace of the injury is observable, unless a speck of dead cells remains buried beneath the new wood, and indicates the line where the knife point killed the former cambium and scored the surface of the wood in making the wound.