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Disease In Plants | by H. Marshall Ward



It has often been represented to me that the cultivators of plants, among whom are to be included planters and foresters, as well as agriculturists and gardeners of every kind, are more particularly concerned with, and interested in, the maladies themselves of the plants they grow, than in the life-history of the fungi, insects or other organisms to which they are due, or in the physiological processes which are involved; and although it is impossible to really understand any disease unless we also understand the processes by which it is brought about, there is room for sympathy with the point of view of the cultivator. He says, in effect, "I do not want to know all about the biology of the fungus of wheat-rust, or of the phylloxera, nor do I want to learn what experts can tell me about the action of bacteria in soil, or the process of starch-formation in the leaves: I have neither the time nor the means to master these details. What I want is guidance as to what is wrong with my tomatoes, apple trees, chrysanthemums, fir trees, turnips, etc., and what I am to do to set things right."

TitleDisease In Plants
AuthorH. Marshall Ward
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1901
Copyright1901, The Macmillan Company
AmazonDiseases Of Plants
-Preface To Disease In Plants
It has often been represented to me that the cultivators of plants, among whom are to be included planters and foresters, as well as agriculturists and gardeners of every kind, are more particularly c...
-Part 1. Some Factors For Plants And Disease. Chapter 1. The Plant And Its Surroundings
The plant the central object of study - soil, climate, atmosphere, etc., are factors of its environment. Agricultural chemistry. The plant a machine. Physiology. If I were asked to sum up the most im...
-Chapter 2. The Plant And Its Food
The food of plants - Vital force - Other errors - Liebig and Boussingault - The botany of agriculture. The synthesis of carbohydrates - The physiology of plant-nutrition. The persiste?ice of misconc...
-Chapter 3. The Plant A Living Machine
The plant a machine into which energy and material are taken - Carbon assimilation - Feeding - Accumulation and transformations in the plant. The action of light - The chlorophyll-function. The rela...
-Chapter 4. Plant Metabolism
Quantities of starch formed, and their significance for the plant. The absorption of energy - the conversion of energy in the plant. The plant is a complex machine for concentrating and storing energy...
-Plant Metabolism. Continued
The importance of the conclusion is immense, for even if the plant had no other sources of energy than the darker heat rays of the solar spectrum, it is clear that it ought to be able to do work. The...
-Chapter 5. Plant Roots And Root-Hairs
Older views as to root-hairs - Root-hairs and their development - Surface - Variations - Conditions for maximum formation - Minute structure - Adhesion to particles of soil-Functions. On the roots of...
-Plant Roots And Root-Hairs. Continued
Oats in a 15 per cent, solution of calcium chloride developed no root-hairs, though they formed in a 5 per cent, solution, and were very numerous in a 0.5 per cent, solution, or in water alone. In a 1...
-Chapter 6. The Functions Of Plant Root-Hairs
Excretions from root-hairs - Osmotic phenomena - Turgescence - Plasmolysis - Control of the protoplasm in absorption, etc. Selective absorption. We see then that the root-hairs are the active living ...
-The Functions Of Plant Root-Hairs. Continued
If we now suppose the protoplasm to give rise to powerfully osmotic substances which accumulate in the sap-vacuole, but which are not permitted free egress through the protoplasm (and the formation of...
-Chapter 7. The Biology Of Soil
Soil not a dead matrix - Organic materials - The living organisms of the soil - Their activities - Their numbers and importance. Abandonment of the notion that chemical analysis can explain the probl...
-The Biology Of Soil. Part 2
A list of the soil-bacteria which have been isolated and more or less carefully cultivated and examined would comprise about fifty species; but it is certain that, as at present classified and named, ...
-The Biology Of Soil. Part 3
But, when all due honour is paid to the scientific chemist, it must still be allowed that his problems are different from the real problems of agriculture. To take one set of instances alone. The chem...
-Chapter 8. Hybridisation And Selection
The crossing of varieties of wheat, etc. - The essentials of fertilisation - Rimpau's experiments - Hybrids and selected varieties. In the more hopeful view of the case which the new agriculture will...
-Hybridisation And Selection. Part 2
Some important consequences result, however, if systematic care is brought to bear on the matter. This tendency to variation in the second generation of crossed plants has often been noted, and it bea...
-Hybridisation And Selection. Part 3
It is probable, from recent experiments by De Vries, Correns, and others, that a remarkable regularity, expressed by Mendel in the form of a law, obtains in the variations which result from hybridisin...
-Part 2. Disease In Plants. Chapter 9. Phytopathology, Derivation And Meaning
History. References in the Bible - Greeks and Romans - Shakespeare - Rouen law - Superstitions - Malpighi and Grew-Hales - Unger - Berkeley - De Bary, etc. Physiology and Biology - Diagnosis - Etiolo...
-Chapter 10. Plant Health And Disease
Variation - Disease - Comparison to a top. Health - Extinction of species - Natural demise. Examples of complex interactions in health - Interference, and tendencies to ill-health. When we come to e...
-Chapter 11. Causes Of Plant Disease
A. External causes - I. Non-living environment: soil, atmosphere, temperature - II. Living environment: plants, animals - Complex interactions - Predisposing causes - No one factor works alone - Tangl...
-Causes Of Plant Disease. Continued
For instance, a common way of killing ferns is to keep the roots and soil wet and the air and fronds dry, whereas the natural habitats provide for wet and shaded fronds and well-drained soil. It may ...
-Chapter 12. Causes Of Plant Disease. The Living Environment
Causes due to animals - Vertebrata - Wounds, etc. - Invertebrata - Insects, etc. - Plants as causes of disease - Phanerogams, weeds, etc. - Cryptogams, fungi - Epidemics, etc. Passing now to those c...
-Causes Of Plant Disease. The Living Environment. Continued
Many so-called weeds are, however, partially parasitic, with their roots on the roots of others - e.g. Rhinanthus, Thesium, etc., and much damage is done to meadow grasses and herbage by the exhausti...
-Chapter 13. Nature Of Plant Disease
General and local disease - General death owing to cutting-off supplies, etc. - Disease of organs - Tissue-diseases, e.g. timber-Root-diseases - Leaf diseases, etc. - Diseases of Respiratory, Assimila...
-Nature Of Plant Disease. Continued
This healing by cork occurs in any tissue of living cells exposed by a cut-leaf-tissue, young stem or root, fruit, cambium, etc.; and the same applies to any other kind of cutting or tearing injury - ...
-Chapter 14. Nature Of Plant Disease (Continued)
Actions of poisons in small doses - Results of killing a few cells - Malformation - Enzymes - Secretions and excretions - Acids, poisons, etc. - Chemotactic phenomena - Parasitism - Epiphytes and endo...
-Nature Of Plant Disease (Chapter 14). Continued
There is yet a further point to notice here. It has been proved that certain substances formed in plant-cells, not necessarily nutritive, attract the hyphae of parasitic fungi or repel them, according...
-Chapter 15. Spreading Of Plant Disease And Epidemics
Dissemination of fungi by the aid of snails, rabbits, bees, and insects - Man - Distribution in soil, on clothes, through the post, etc. - Worms, wind - Puffing of spores - Creeping of mycelia - Lurk...
-Chapter 16. The Factors Of A Plant Disease Epidemic
Illustrations afforded by the potato disease - The larch disease - The phylloxera of the vine. When we come to enquire into what circumstances bring about those severe and apparently sudden attacks o...
-The Factors Of A Plant Disease Epidemic. Continued
As a third illustration I will take the case of an insect epidemic. In 1863 a disease was observed on vines in the South of France which frightened the growers as they realised its destructive effects...
-Chapter 17. Remedial Measures For Plant Diseases
Preventable diseases - The principles of therapeutics - Powders and their application - Spraying with liquids - Nature of chemicals employed - Employment of epidemics and natural checks - The struggl...
-Remedial Measures For Plant Diseases. Continued
Attempts, not altogether unsuccessful on the small scale, have also been made to introduce epidemic diseases among rats, mice, and locusts and other insects, by inoculating some of them with parasitic...
-Chapter 18. Variation And Disease Of Plants
Predisposition and immunity - Pathological conditions vary - Hardy varieties - Disease-proof varieties - Disease dodging - Thick skins - Indian wheats, etc. Cell-contents vary - Citrus, Cinchona, ...
-Variation And Disease Of Plants. Continued
Something has been gained, then, if we can show that there is nothing absurd or hopeless in the search for disease-proof or resistant races, and I think this can be done. We must not forget that the i...
-Chapter 19. Symptoms Of Plant Disease
Discolorations - Pallor - Etiolation - Laying of Wheat - Chlorosis - Yellowing - Albinism - Variegation - Uprooting, Exposure and Wilting of seedlings. Everybody knows in a general way when the g...
-Etiolation - Symptoms Of Plant Disease
Etiolation is due to insufficient intensity of light, the pale sickly yellow organs being unusually watery and deficient in vascular tissue, the internodes abnormally long and thin, and the leaves gen...
-Chlorosis - Symptoms Of Plant Disease
Chlorosis is a form of pallor where the chlorophyll grains themselves are fully developed, but their green pigment remains in abeyance owing to a deficiency of iron in the soil, and can often be cured...
-Yellowing - Symptoms Of Plant Disease
Yellowing accompanied by Wilting is a predominant symptom in most cases where transpiration is more active than root-absorption beyond a certain limit, as is well known in cases of prolonged drought. ...
-Albinism And Variegation - Symptoms Of Plant Disease
Albinism and Variegation are apparently due to causes totally different from any yet mentioned. Church's analyses have shown that albino leaves contain more water and less organic matter than green on...
-Upheaval, Exposure And Wilting Of Seddlings - Symptoms Of Plant Disease
Upheaval of seedlings. - This is a common form of injury, resulting in death by drought and exposure, especially in seedling pines, wheat, etc., in soils exposed to alternate freezing and thawing duri...
-Chapter 20. Symptoms Of Plant Disease (Continued)
Spotted leaves - The colours of spots - White, yellow, brown, and black spots on leaves - Parti - coloured spots - The browning, etc., of leaves. Discoloured spots or patches on the herbaceous parts...
-Chapter 21. Artificial Plant Wounds
The nature of wounds and of healing processes - Knife wounds - Simple cuts - Stripping - Cuttings - Branch-stumps and pruning - Stool - stumps - Ringing - Bruises. Callus - Artificial Plant Wounds ...
-Wounds - Artificial Plant Wounds
Wounds. - All the parts of plants are exposed to the danger of wounds, from mechanical causes such as, wind, falling stones or trees, hail, etc., or from the bites of animals such as rabbits, worms, a...
-Knife Wounds - Artificial Plant Wounds
Knife-wounds. - Artificial cuts in stems are easily recognised and soon heal up unless disturbed. Several cases, differing in complexity, are to be distinguished. The simplest is that of a longitudin...
-Stripping Bark - Artificial Plant Wounds
Stripping. - Now suppose that, instead of a mere slit with the knife-point, a strip of bark is removed down to the wood. Exactly the same processes of corking and lip-like callus formation at the edge...
-Cuttings - Artificial Plant Wounds
Cuttings. - When a cutting of Pelargonium, Willow, or other plant is made, we have a typical knife-wound, the behaviour of which is very instructive in illustration of plant-surgery, and may be most e...
-Branch Stumps - Artificial Plant Wounds
Branch stumps. - A more complex example is furnished by a branch cut off short some distance - say a foot - from the base, where it springs from the trunk. As before, the immediate effect of the sect...
-Ringing - Artificial Plant Wounds
Ringing. - If the strip of cortical tissues and cambium is removed all round the stem, exposing the wood in a form of a ring, complications may ensue owing to the following circumstances. A well-marke...
-Bruises - Artificial Plant Wounds
Bruises. - If a branch or woody stem is struck sharply, with a hammer, for instance, the bruised cortex, phloem and cambium are killed by the blow, and the general effect is as if these tissues had be...
-Chapter 22. Natural Plant Wounds
Burrows and excavations. Bark-boring - Wood-boring - Wood fungi - Leafminiers - Pith flecks - Erosions. Skeleton leaves - Irregular erosions - Shot holes. Frost cracks - Strangulations - Spiral groov...
-Bark Boring - Natural Plant Wounds
Bark-boring is done by many species of beetles, especially Scolytidae, which excavate characteristically formed branching passages tangentially in the inner bark of Conifers and other trees. Some of t...
-Wood Boring - Natural Plant Wounds
Wood-boring is also done by many of the bark-beetles as well as by Longicorns, e.g. Saperda in Poplars and Willows, the young shoots of which often show characteristic swellings with lateral holes in...
-Pith Flecks - Natural Plant Wounds
Pith-flecks are minute brown specks or patches found in the wood-layers of many trees, and consist of dead parenchymatous thick-walled cells, reminding one of the structure of pith. They are explained...
-Erosions Or Irregular Wounds - Natural Plant Wounds
Erosions or irregular wounds on leaves are caused by large numbers of grubs and caterpillars and other insects, such as earwigs, as well as slugs, snails, and other animals; but it must by no means be...
-Shot Holes - Natural Plant Wounds
Shot-holes are perforations in leaves presenting the appearance, from their more or less rounded shape, of gunshot wounds. They may be due to insects which bore through the young leaves while still fo...
-Frost Cracks - Natural Plant Wounds
Frost-cracks. - The trunks of trees exposed to the north-east, and occasionally with other aspects, are apt to show longitudinal ridges which realise on a larger scale the features of healed wounds sc...
-Strangulations - Natural Plant Wounds
Strangulations. - We are now in a position to understand the so-called strangulations which result when woody climbers, telegraph wires, etc., kill or injure trees by tightly winding round them. If s...
-Chapter 23. Excrescences Or Plant Out-Growths
Herbaceous excrescences, or galls - Erineum - Intumescences - Corky warts, etc. - Pustules - Frost-blisters - Galls and Cecidia-Root nodules. Excrescences Or Galls Excrescences, or out-growths of m...
-Erineum - Excrescences Or Plant Out-Growths
Erineum. - The simplest excrescences on plants are certain hair-like developments of epidermal cells due to the irritation of species of Phytoptus, and similar insects which rise in clusters on the su...
-Corky Warts - Excrescences Or Plant Out-Growths
Corky warts. - Several forms of disease are known in which the pathological condition is expressed by the formation of cork in unwonted places and quantities. The Scab or Scurf of Potatoes is a case i...
-Pustules - Excrescences Or Plant Out-Growths
Pustules. - This term may be employed generally for all slight upheavals of the surfaces of herbaceous organs, which subsequently burst and give egress to the spores, etc., of the organism causing the...
-Burrs Or Knauers - Excrescences Or Plant Out-Growths
Burrs or Knauers are irregular excrescences, principally woody, with gnarled and warted surfaces. They are frequently due to some previous injury, such as the crushing or grazing of cortical tissues b...
-Witches Brooms - Excrescences Or Plant Out-Growths
Witches' Brooms are irregular tufts of twigs often found among the branches of trees such as Birches, Hornbeam, etc., where they look like crows' nests, and similar structures are to be found on Silve...
-Chapter 24. Excrescences Or Plant Out-Growths (continued)
Cankers - Burrs - Sphaeroblasts, and other excrescences of woody tissues - Witches' Brooms. Cankers - Excrescences Or Plant Out-Growths Cankers are irregular excrescences due to the perennial strug...
-Chapter 25. Exudations And Rotting
Tumescence - Rankness - Bursting of fruits, etc. - Root rot - Rot of fruits - Bulb diseases - Flux - Honey-dew - Slime flux - Resinosis - Gummosis - Manna. I put together in one artificial class a v...
-Tumescence - Exudations And Rotting
Tumescence. - It occasionally happens that herbaceous parts of plants pass into a condition of over-turgescence from excess of water in the tissues, an abnormal state which indicates pathological chan...
-Rankness - Exudations And Rotting
Rankness affords another example where superfluity of water is concerned, though it does not involve simply this, because the plant may also contain excessive quantities of nitrogenous and mineral mat...
-Bursting Of Fleshy Fruits - Exudations And Rotting
Bursting of fleshy fruits, such as Tomatoes, Grapes, etc., is due to over-turgescence in rainy weather or excessively moist air. But the phenomenon is by no means confined to such organs. Hot-house pl...
-Root Rot - Exudations And Rotting
Root-rot is a common disease in damp, sour clay soils after a continuance of wet weather - e.g. Wheat, especially if root-drawn and exposed to thaw water. In the disease known as Beet-rot, the roots ...
-Flux - Exudations And Rotting
Flux. - It is a common event to see fluids of various kinds issuing from wounds in trees, or congealing in more or less solid masses about them; and owing to the prevailing tendency to compare plant d...
-Honey Dew - Exudations And Rotting
Honey-dew. - The leaves, or other organs, of many plants are sticky in hot weather, owing to the excretion of a sweet liquid containing sugar, the consistency and colour of which vary according to cir...
-Slime Flux - Exudations And Rotting
Slime-flux. - The trunks of trees may sometimes be observed to pour out a slimy fluid from cracks in the bark, or from old wounds, or branch scars. In some cases, e.g. in Oaks, the slime has a beery o...
-Resin Flux - Exudations And Rotting
Resin-flux or Resinosis. - The stems of Pines and other conifers are apt to exude resin from any cut or wound made by insects, or by the gnawing of other animals; but in many cases the flow is due to ...
-Gummosis - Exudations And Rotting
Gummosis. - Cherries, Apricots, Acacias, and many other trees are apt to produce abnormal quantities of gum, which flows from any wound or exudes through cracks in the bark. Degeneration of the wood-c...
-Potato Disease - Exudations And Rotting
The Potato-disease is best known by the pale whitish fringe, giving an almost meally appearance to the margins of the brown to black patches in damp weather. In dry weather the brown patches shrivel a...
-Potato Wet Rot - Exudations And Rotting
Wet rot of potatoes may be due to various fungi, and, in excess of water, to putrefactive bacteria (e.g. Clostridium), which destroy the cell-walls. The flesh becomes soft, then soup-like, and finally...
-Potato Dry Rot - Exudations And Rotting
Dry-rot of Potatoes is also due to various fungi and bacteria, but the destructive action goes on slowly, owing to there being no more moisture than the tissues afford. The flesh becomes excavated her...
-Chapter 26. Necrotic Plant Diseases
Patches - Frost-patches - Bruising due to hail, shot, etc.- Fire - Sun-burn or scorching - Sun-cracks. Dying-back - Frost - Fungi - Wound fungi - Defoliation by insects - Defoliation by hand - Staghea...
-Sun-burn Or Scorching - Necrotic Plant Diseases
Sun-burn or Scorching. - If thin-barked trees, such as Hornbeam, Beech, Firs, etc., which have been growing in partial shade owing to dense planting, are suddenly isolated by thinning, the impingemen...
-Dying-back - Necrotic Plant Diseases
Dying-back. - All that is true of the necrosis of cortical tissues in small patches also applies to cases where the whole of the outer tissues of thin twigs and branches die of inanition owing to a pr...
-Stag Head - Necrotic Plant Diseases
Stag-head. - Old trees, though vigorous and in full foliage throughout the crown generally, frequently lose the power of bearing leaves on their topmost branches and twigs, which stand out bare and br...
-Chapter 27. Monstrosities And Malformations
Monstrosities - Teratology - Atrophy of organs - Shanking of grapes - Barren fruit trees - Dwarfing - Distortions and malformations - Fasciations - Flattened roots - Torsions - Curling and puckering ...
-Atrophy - Monstrosities And Malformations
Atrophy is a common phenomenon denoting dwindling or reductions in size of organs due to insufficient nutrition, or arrest of growth from various causes. Atrophy of leaves is a common result of the a...
-Dwarfing - Monstrosities And Malformations
Dwarfing is frequently a consequence of the lack of food materials, or of some particular ingredient in the soil, and in such cases is a diseased condition of some danger; similar results may ensue in...
-Distortion Or Malformations - Monstrosities And Malformations
Distortions or Malformations may be defined as abnormalities in the form of organs which concern all, or nearly all the parts, and do not refer merely to swellings or excrescences on them or excavatio...
-Leaf Rolling - Monstrosities And Malformations
Leaf-rolling. - The leaves of Beeches, Poplars, Limes, and many other plants, instead of opening out flat, are often rolled in from the margins, or from the apex, by various species of Phytoptus, Ceci...
-Chapter 28. Proliferations
Proliferations - Vivipary - Prolepsis - Lammas shoots - Dormant buds - Epicormic shoots - Adventitious buds - Apospory and apogamy. Proliferation consists in the unexpected and abnormal on-growing ...
-Proplesis - Proliferations
Proplesis. - It frequently happens that branches or whole plants are suddenly defoliated in summer, - e.g. by caterpillars or other insects - at a time when considerable stores of reserves had already...
-Dormant Buds - Proliferations
Dormant buds, or preventitious buds, are such as receive no sufficient supply of water and food materials to enable them to open with the other buds in ordinary years, for in most trees only the upper...
-Adventitious Buds - Proliferations
Adventitious buds are such as are newly formed from callus or other tissues in places not normally provided with buds, as is often seen on occluding wounds - e.g. stool shoots. They may also be develo...
-Chapter 29. Plant Grafts
Grafting - Comparison with cuttings - Effects of environment - Relations between scion and stock - Variation in grafts - Grafting and parasitism - Infection - Pollination - Grafts - hybrids - Predisp...
-Plant Grafts. Continued
Going still further, we may compare the effects of cross-breeding or of hybridisation, where the progeny show that changes have resulted from the mutual interactions and reactions of the commingled pr...
-Chapter 30. Life And Death Of Plants
Protoplasm - Hypothesis as to its structure and behaviour - Assimilation - Growth - Respiration - Metabolism - Action of the environment - Nuclear protoplasm - Pollination - Grafting - Parasitism- Gr...
-Life And Death Of Plants. Part 2
That numerous chemical rearrangements of the atom - complexes take place outside the protoplasmic molecules - both of those left unemployed in assimilation and of those rejected during the destructive...
-Life And Death Of Plants. Part 3
Must we not conclude, then, that this difficulty of reaching the nuclear-protoplasm is owing to the fact that it is nourished and influenced directly only by the cell-protoplasm? That the cell-protopl...
-Life And Death Of Plants. Part 4
A step further, and we come to instances of Symbiosis, where the commingled masses of protoplasm of host and invader continue this harmonious action during life. Clearly there are resemblances between...
-Life And Death Of Plants. Part 5
We may, therefore, conclude that Variation depends fundamentally on alterations in the structure or mode of building up and disintegration of the protoplasmic molecular unit, brought about either by d...









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previous page: The Balance Of Nature And Modern Conditions Of Cultivation | by George Abbey
  
page up: Gardening and Horticulture Books
  
next page: Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants | by W. Botting Hemsley