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Farm And Garden Rule-Book | by L. H. Bailey



A manual of ready rules and reference with recipes, precepts, formulas, and tabular information for the use of general farmers, ... and others in the United States and Canada

TitleFarm And Garden Rule-Book
AuthorL. H. Bailey
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1911
Copyright1911, By The Macmillan Company
AmazonFarm and garden rule-book
cover

Farm And Garden Rule-Book

The Rural Manuals

Manual of Gardening - Bailey

Manual of Farm Animals - Harper

Farm and Garden Rule-Book - Bailey

Manual of Home-Making - In preparation

Manual of Cultivated Plants - In preparation

A Manual Of Ready Rules And Reference With Recipes, Precepts, Formulas, And Tabular Informa Tion For The Use Of General Farmers, Gardeners, Fruit-Growers, Stockmen, Dairymen, Poultry-Men, Foresters, Rural Teachers, And Others In The United States And Canada

By L. H. Bailey

The Macmillan Company

All rights reserved

Copyright, 1911, By The Macmillan Company.

Set up and electrotyped. Published November, 1911.

Norwood Press

J. B. Cushing Co. - Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

-Preface
The first edition of this manual was published late in 1889, and the second early in 1892, both by the Rural Publishing Company, publisher of the American Garden and Rural New-Yorker. The third ed...
-Chapter I The Weather
The farmer lives with the weather. Therefore he should understand it; and he should be able to follow the indications of the weather maps, and should be provided with good thermometers and barometers ...
-How to use the Weather Map
(Weather Bureau, U. S. Dept. Agric.) The first impression of a student of the weather maps, as they present their seemingly endless forms and combinations of the temperature and pressure lines, is ...
-How to use the Weather Map. Continued
The weather indications. The centers of areas of low barometric pressure, or general storms, are indicated on the map by the word low, and the centers of areas of high barometric pressure by the ...
-Weather Bureau Forecasts
Forecasts of the weather expected during the ensuing thirty-six hours are issued by the United States Weather Bureau daily at about 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. and are distributed to all parts of the country ...
-Whistle Signals
The warning signal, to attract attention, will be a long blast of from fifteen to twenty seconds' duration. After this warning signal has been sounded, long blasts (of from four to six seconds' durati...
-Whistle Signals. Continued
If the center of the storm passes north of the observer, the wind will change from S.E. to S., then to S.W., and finally to W. or N.W. as the storm passes on its way eastward. If the center of the ...
-Frosts, and Methods of Protection
How frost forms (Wilson). In the day, plants usually receive more heat from the sun than they give off (radiate), and consequently become warmer; but at night the process is reversed, and they radi...
-How To Find The Dew-Point
The dew-point is determined by the wet- and dry-bulb thermometer (or psychrometer). The instrument may be made as follows: For the frame find a board eighteen inches long, two inches wide, and one hal...
-Methods of Protection Against Frost (Wilson)
Protection against frost is not only possible, but practicable. The method to be employed depends on the kind of crop, the expense its value will justify, and the facilities at hand. But whatever meth...
-Phenology
Phenology (contraction of phenomenology) is that science which considers the relationship of local climate to the periodicity of the annual phenomena of nature. It usually studies climate and the prog...
-Climatic records compiled by the Weather Services
As it requires about ten years of careful observation to determine approximately the average or normal temperature of a locality, and perhaps twenty years to determine the normal rainfall, few farmers...
-Chapter II The Elements and the Soil
The mass of the earth (and the atmosphere) is at present assumed to be composed of certain elementary or indivisible substances, and of combinations of these substances. The number of elements now rec...
-Chemical Compounds
The chemist uses initials (or other letters) to designate the elements, when he makes a formula to express the composition of any compound; and he adds a figure to each symbol when more than one part ...
-The Soil
The soil, as the farmer understands it, is the soft tillable covering or epidermis of the earth. It is derived primarily from disintegrated rock, but all productive soils contain organic remains, or m...
-Soil Water
Water occurs in. the soil in three forms: (1) Gravitational or hydrostatic water; (2) capillary water; (3) hygroscopic water. Amount of water used by various crops in producing a ton of dry-matte...
-Plant-Food in the Soil
In estimating plant-food, chemists usually catalogue only the three elements (or combinations of them) that are likely to be much depleted by the growing of crops, - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. (...
-Alkali Lands
In countries of heavy rainfall, the alkaline materials are leached out in the drainage waters. In arid countries there is very little or no leachage; the water passes off by evaporation, and the alkal...
-Tillage, and Soil Management
Tillage is the preparing and stirring of the soil with the object to make it more congenial to the growth of plants. On the wise management of the soil depends the perpetuation of the human race. O...
-Chapter III Chemical Fertilizers and Lime
A fertilizer is a material added to the soil for the purpose of supplying food for plants. An amendment is a substance or material that modifies the physical, mechanical and chemical nature of the ...
-Fertilizer Materials
Some of the Sources of Chemical Fertilizers Percentage composition of materials used as sources of nitrogen (German Kali Works, N.Y. City) Nitrogen Eq...
-Importation of potash salts
The potash industry has not been revived in the United States thus far, and the great bulk of the potash salts now used are imported. The following table (by Phalen) shows the magnitude of the importa...
-Content Of Fertilizers
Principal potash materials used in fertilizers in the United States, 1900 and 1905 1900 1905 Increase Per Cent of Increase ...
-Fertilizer Formulas and Guarantees (Voorhees)
Probably more than nine-tenths of the fertilizers used in this country are purchased in the form of mixtures containing all three of the essential constituents, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Th...
-Fertilizer Formulas and Guarantees (Voorhees). Part 2
Guarantee on basis of actual constituents: Nitrogen (total) ............1.65 to 2.50 per cent. Phosphoric acid (available).........7.00 to 9.00 per cent. Potash (actual)..........
-Fertilizer Formulas and Guarantees (Voorhees). Part 3
Farmers should be warned against judging fertilizers by their valuations. A fertilizer, the cost of which comes chiefly from the phosphoric acid present, would value much lower commercially than a fer...
-Home-Mixing of Fertilizers
General advice (Kentucky Station). The farmer may mix his own fertilizers in a satisfactory manner. He should first determine how many pounds of phosphoric acid, nitrogen, and potash he wishes to u...
-Antagonistic Ingredients Of Fertilizers
Incompatibles in fertilizer mixtures (U. S. Dept. Agric). The danger of indiscriminate mixing of fertilizing materials should be understood, and a diagram (Fig. 4) is given to indicate what combina...
-Soil Analysis and Fertilizer Tests (Cavanaugh)
A chemical analysis of a soil consists in finding the amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash, lime, magnesia, and humus that it contains. It may be carried further, and the other constituents de...
-Analysis Of Substances
Analyses of Various Chemical Fertilizer and Related Materials Dissolved Bone-Black This material is a superphosphate prepared by treating refuse bone-black from sugar refineries with oil of v...
-Analysis Of Substances. Continued
Insoluble matter, before calcination............. 18.49 Insoluble matter, after calcination............. 12.12 Ashes (Wood), Leached Moisture at 100 C.......
-Fertilizer Formulas for Various Crops
There is no exact method of determining the fertilizer or plant-food needs of the various crops. Certain guides have been established, however, from analyses of the plants and other means, and some of...
-Fertilizers For Special Crops
Radishes Raspberries Squashes Same as for cucumbers. Strawberries Tobacco Tomatoes ...
-Special Fertilizers. - Lime
Turnips Same as for beets. Watermelons Same as for cucumbers. Wheat ...
-Lime for the Land
Of late years the old custom of liming the land has been revived. It is now found that lime, or other alkali, is needed to neutralize the acidity of certain soils. To determine whether a soil is ac...
-Agricultural Lime
Fineness of division of lime (Fippin). The finer the lime (the smaller the particles) the greater its availability. Considering the calcium content, first cost, freight, and fineness, it is often b...
-Chapter IV Farm Manures, and Similar Materials
Animals are among the most essential agents in the maintaining of the fertility of the land. Farm manures are of great value, not only for the plant-food they contain, but for the humus that they cont...
-Farm Manures, and Similar Materials. Continued
One thousand pounds of fresh urine contain: Water Nitrogen Phosphoric Acid Alkalies Horse...... ...
-Use of manures
A thousand pounds of wheat, 162/3 bu., and 2000 lb. of straw (an average crop per acre) require 27 lb. of nitrogen, 12.4 lb. of phosphoric acid, 17.9 lb. of potash. Ten tons of fresh unrotted manure f...
-Use of manures. Part 2
Further Analyses of Animal Excrements Common barnyard manure, Water......... 710.0 Lime......... 5.7 Organic substance .... 246...
-Use of manures. Part 3
Horse-urine, fresh Water ........ 901.0 Lime......... 4.5 Organic substance ........................ 71.0 Magnesia........ &...
-Chapter V Seed-Tables
The farm practice of the particular person greatly modifies the quantity of seed to be used to the acre, as also the purpose for which the given crop is to be grown; but the average quantities are to ...
-Hay and Pasture Seeds
For quantity of seed for cover-crops, see Chap. VIII. Number and weight of grass seeds, and another estimate of quantity to sow (Fraser). The following table has been adapted from The Be...
-Forest Trees
By count Silver-leaved maple .... Acer dascycarpum...... 2,421 Honey-locust...... Gleditschia triacanthos .... &...
-Weights and Sizes of Seeds
Seedsmen's customary weights per bushel of seeds (Edgar Brown) Kind of Seed Pounds per bushel Kind of Seed Pounds per bushel Alfalfa....
-Garden Seeds
Weight and size of garden seeds Continued Seed-Tables Weight and size of garden seeds Continued Figures of Germination and Purity Seed testing. The testing o...
-Life Of Seeds
Longevity of Seeds Continued Longevity of Seeds Continued Haberlandt's figures of longevity (Quoted in Johnson's How Crops Grow) ...
-Chapter VI Planting-Tables
The novice always wants exact advice as to dates, depths, and distances. It is impossible to give such advice that is reliable in all times and places; it must be given only for suggestion and guidanc...
-Planting-Tables. Part 2
Watermelon..... About the middle of May. New York (Henderson) Plants to sow from the middle of March to the end of April. Thermometer in shade averaging 45 degrees. Beet ...
-Planting-Tables. Part 3
March. Millet .... June and July ; after potatoes. Grass-seed . . September, October, November, February, and March. Carrots . . . Fe...
-Planting-Tables. Part 4
Broccoli Koh...
-Flower-planting table (Suburban Life)
It is a wise plan to grow enough extra plants in a reserve bed or in pots during the summer, so that any gaps in the bed may be filled as the occasion requires. This table includes some perennials and...
-How Far Apart To Plant
Distance-Tables Usual distances apart for planting fruits Apples................ 30 to 40 feet each way. Apples, dwarf (Paradise stocks)........ 8 to 10 feet ...
-How Far Apart To Plant. Continued
Parsley ... In drills 1 to 2 ft. apart. Parsnip ... In drills, 18 in. to 3 ft. apart. Peas .... In drills ; early kinds, usually in double r...
-Family Garden
Quincunx planting. To find the number of plants required to set an acre by the quincunx method, ascertain from the above tables the number required at the given rectangular distances, and then incr...
-Chapter VII Maturities, Yields, and Multiplication
Any figures of dates of maturity of the various plants or crops and of yields must necessarily be only approximately or averagely correct; but methods of multiplication allow of more definite statemen...
-Yields of field crops
Yields of field crops (Cyclo. Am. Agric.) As reported by observers in several parts of the continent Yields of field crops - Continued As reported for this volume by observers in severa...
-Yields of field crops. Continued
Beans of all kinds Lettuce ...
-How farm crops are propagated By seeds
Alfalfa Barley Bean Broom-corn Buckwheat Cabbage Clover Coffee, seeds started in beds, and transplanted. Corn &...
-Chapter VIII Crops for Special Farm Practices. Home Storage and Keeping of Crops
Different systems or plans of farming are expressed in the character of the cropping scheme; and some of these schemes are so special that they may be thrown together in a reference advice-book. ...
-Forage Crops
Forage is herbage food, whether green or cured. The forage crops are grasses (whether utilized in meadows, pastures, or otherwise), all coarse natural grazing crops such as animals are likely to find ...
-Soiling Crops
The more important soiling corps are: winter grains (cut before blooming), peas and oats, alfalfa, clover, vetch, soybeans, millet, cowpeas, corn, sorghum, and rape. If it is desired to feed green ...
-Soiling Crops. Continued
A cover-crop is one that is grown for its effect as green-manure or protection, or otherwise, rather than for its value as a product of itself. Cover-crops are used 1. To prevent the loss of ...
-Cover-Crops
*Bean. *Beggar weed. *Spring vetch (Vicia sativa). Rape. Turnip. Oats. Barley (little used). Buckwheat. Maize. Millet (little used). 1 qt. of spring or win...
-Field Root-Crops (Minns)
Seeds of the mangel may be sown in central New York from May 1 to June 1, with expectation of a good crop. Late frosts do not endanger the young plants; and if the ground is in good condition the earl...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Apples
1. Keep the fruit as cool as possible without freezing. Choose only normal fruit, and place it upon trays in a moist but well-ventilated cellar. If it is desired to keep the fruit particularly nice, a...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Cabbage
The most satisfactory method of keeping cabbages is to bury them in the field. Choose a dry place, pull the cabbages, and stand them head down on the earth. Cover them with soil to the depth of 6 or 1...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Celery
For market purposes, celery is stored in temporary board pits, in sheds, in cellars, and in various kinds of earth pits and trenches. The points to be considered are, to provide the plants with moi...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Crystallized or glace fruit
The principle is to extract the juice from the fruit and replace it with sugar syrup, which hardens and preserves the fruit in its natural shape. The fruit should be all of one size and of a uniform d...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Figs
After the figs are gathered and dried in the same way as peaches or apricots, wash to remove all grit, and spread in shallow pans, and set them in the oven to become thoroughly heated, taking care to ...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Grapes
1. The firm grapes usually keep best as Catawba, Vergennes, Niagara, Diana, Jefferson, etc. Thickness of skin does not appear to be correlated with good keeping qualities. Always c...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Orange
Aside from the customary wrapping of oranges in tissue paper and packing them in boxes, burying in dry sand is sometimes practiced. The fruit is first wrapped in tissue paper, and it should be buried ...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Pears
Pears should be picked several days or even two weeks before they are ripe, and then placed in a dry and well-ventilated room, as a chamber. Make very shallow piles, or, better, place on trays. They w...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Sweet-potato
In the North. - Dig the potatoes on a sunny day, and allow them to dry thoroughly in the field. Sort out the poor ones, and handle the remainder carefully. Never allow them to become chilled. Then pac...
-Methods of Keeping and Storing Tomato
Pick the firmest fruits just as they are beginning to turn, leaving the stems on, exercising care not to bruise them, and pack in a barrel or box in clean and thoroughly dry sand, placing the fruits s...
-Cold Storage
Storing under refrigeration is mostly a business by itself, and is therefore out of reach of a general book of rules. However, a few figures drawn from experience may be useful to the farmer: ...
-Chapter IX Commercial Grades of Crop Products. Fruit Packages
The market grades or classes of some products have been very carefully standardized. This is particularly true of grains, hay, and straw, and to a less extent of fruit. In prepared animal products the...
-Commercial Grades of Crop Products. Fruit Packages. Part 2
No 1. Midland - Shall be midland hay of good color, well cured, sweet, sound, and may contain 3 per cent weeds. No. 2 Midland - Shall be fair color, or slough hay of good color, and may contain 121...
-Commercial Grades of Crop Products. Fruit Packages. Part 3
No. 2 Red Winter Wheat - Shall be soft red winter wheat of both light and dark colors, sound, sweet, and clean, shall not contain more than 5 per cent of white winter wheat, and weigh not less than 58...
-Commercial Grades of Crop Products. Fruit Packages. Part 4
No. 3 Durum Wheat - Shall include all durum wheat bleached, shrunken, or for any cause unfit for No. 2, and weigh not less than 55 lb. to the measured bushel. No. 4 Durum Wheat - Shall include all ...
-Commercial Grades of Crop Products. Fruit Packages. Part 5
Mixed Oats. No. 1 Mixed Oats - Shall be oats of various colors, dry, sweet, sound, bright, clean, free from other grain, and weigh not less than 32 lb. to the measured bushel. No. 2 Mixed Oats -...
-Commercial Grades of Crop Products. Fruit Packages. Part 6
Mixed corn. No. 1 Mixed Corn - Shall be corn of various colors, sweet and well matured. No. 2 Mixed Corn - Shall be corn of various colors, and sweet. No. 3 Mixed Corn - Shall be corn of va...
-Fruit Packages
Sizes and weights of packages for deciduous fruits (California Fruit Distributors) Weights in first table, sizes in second Cherries.............. 11 pounds per box Peaches......
-Fruit Packages. Part 2
Wrapping paper. Any of the following grades may be used: Light Manila, heavy-weight tissue, or white news. The size of the wrapper will vary somewhat, according to the size of the apple. Tw...
-Fruit Packages. Part 3
Section 3. That the standard grade for apples which shall be shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, or which shall be sold or offered for sale within the District of Colu...
-Fruit Packages. Part 4
String beans (snap) are shipped either in 1/2-bushel or barrel-high Delaware baskets. Beets are usually pulled when 2 or 21/2 inches in diameter and tied in bunches of 3 to 6 beets and packed in 60...
-Sizes Of Truck Packages
Green peppers are almost universally marketed in 6-basket carriers. Radishes are tied in bunches and packed in 1-bushel or barrel-high Delaware baskets, as a rule. A few are marketed in ventilate...
-Chapter X The Judging of Farms, Crops, and Plants. Exhibition and Nomenclature Rules. Emblematic Plants and Flowers
In recent years there has been great development of the desire to standardize knowledge in agriculture; and to this end many formal plans have been devised to enable one to set numerical measures to t...
-Farms and Farm Practices
The agricultural virtues (Pearson). Better prices, more than anything else, have put new life into our agriculture, and have brought about a disposition on the part of some farmers to adopt bet...
-Points of a good farm
In looking for a farm, the inquirer should consider the question pri-i marily from a business point of view. He should know what are the points of a good farm. It is well to make a list of the poi...
-Points of a good farm. Part 2
No points are assigned for climate. This should be considered when judging farms in different regions or at different altitudes, or when topography or proximity to water makes a difference in the clim...
-Points of a good farm. Part 3
Form of bunch.................... 10 Size of bunch..................... 15 Size of berry..................... 10 Color................
-Points of a good farm. Part 4
Form of spike..................... 10 Stem (length and stiffness) ................ 10 Number of flowers on spike................ 15 Vigor (aside f...
-Sample Rules to Govern Exhibitions
Massachusetts Horticultural Society rules (1911). Special rules of the plant and flower committee. 1. All named varieties of Plants or Flowers exhibited for premiums or other awards must ha...
-Nomenclature Rules
Rules for naming kitchen-garden vegetables, adopted by the Committee on Nomenclature of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations (1889, and still in force). 1. ...
-Emblematic Plants and Flowers
State flowers adopted by the vote of the public schools, sometimes by the legislatures (*), sometimes by choice of the people. Alabama............... Goldenrod Alaska ..........
-National and regional flowers
Canada............. Sugar maple China.............. Narcissus Egypt............. Lotus (Nymphxa Lotus) England . . ...........  ...
-Chapter XI Greenhouse and Window-Garden Work
Greenhouse production has now passed beyond the stage of exclusive amateurism, and has become a recognized form of agriculture. It is farming under glass. The area is small, but the investment is high...
-Greenhouse Practice
Potting earth. Loam (decomposed sod), leaf-mold, rotted farm-yard manure, peat, and sand afford the main requirement of the plants most commonly cultivated. Seedlings, and young stock generally, ar...
-Greenhouse Practice. Continued
Lists of Twenty-five plants adapted to window-gardens Pots Adiantum cuneatum, particularly the form known as A. gracillimum. Aloysia citriodora. Begonia metallica, and many others. Cocos Weddellian...
-The Heating of Greenhouses
by R. C. Carpenter) Methods of proportioning radiating surface for heating of greenhouses. Radiating surface, whether from steam or hot-water pipes, is estimated in square feet of exterior surfa...
-The Heating of Greenhouses. Continued
(B) Size of Pipes &nbs...
-Other Information relating to Heating
Diameters for cylindrical chimney-flues, for given heights and boiler capacities (R. C. Carpenter) Four-cornered chimneys are considered to be equivalent to cylindrical chimneys when the sides equa...
-Various Estimates and Recipes
Percentage of rays of light reflected from glass roofs at various angles of divergence from the perpendicular (Bouguer) 1..................... 2.5 per cent 10.........
-Greenhouse Recipes
Liquid putty for glazing. Take equal parts, by measure, of boiled oil, putty, and white lead. Mix the putty and oil, then add the white lead. If the mixture becomes too thick, add turpentine. App...
-Chapter XII Forestry and Timber
Forestry is the raising of timber crops. It is not the planting of shade trees or ornamental trees, or even of groves, but the planting and rearing of forests. The primary product of the forest is tim...
-Hardness of Common Commercial Woods
Shellbark hickory . 100 Black walnut ... 65 Yellow pine ... 54 Pignut hickory . . 96 Black birch ... 62 Ch...
-Forest Yields
Approximate time required to produce different wood crops (U. S. Forest Service) 1Species tolerant of shade which should show better results in second growth. 2Species growi...
-Forest Yields. Part 2
Impregnation with creosote. The impregnation of fence posts with creosote is best accomplished by the so-called open-tank process, so designated to distinguish it from the closed or pressu...
-Forest Yields. Part 3
Board Measure Board measure is designed primarily for the measurement of sawed lumber. The unit is the board foot, which is a board one inch thick and one foot square, so that with inch boards the ...
-Forest Yields. Part 4
The cubic foot is the best unit for measuring the volume of logs. It has gained a foothold in this country, and will unquestionably be the unit of the future. Even now, red-cedar pencil-wood, wagon st...
-Forest Yields. Part 5
Scribner decimal log rule The total scale is obtained by multiplying the figures in this table by 10. Thus the contents of a 6-inch 8-foot log are given as 0.5, so the total scale is 5 board feet. ...
-Log-Scaling Rules
All saw timber will be scaled by the Scribner Decimal log rule. This rule drops the units and gives the contents of a log to the nearest ten. When the total scale of a log is desired, all that is nece...
-Log-Scaling Rules. Continued
This method is very simple, because it requires only two measurements of the log the diameter at the middle and the length. Tables showing the areas of circles in these units are readily acces...
-Chapter XIII Weeds
A Weed is a plant that is not wanted. The methods of weed-control depend largely on the character of soil, system of farming practiced in the neighborhood, and, particularly, on the type of weed conce...
-Kinds of herbicides
(L. R. Jones). The chemicals used as herbicides, the worth of which has been established, are the following: Salt (sodium chlorid), is more commonly used than any other compound, chiefly because of...
-Weed Poisons
If salt is used, it should be scattered freely in the dry form. Caution is necessary where it is liable to be washed on to lawns, lest it damage the grass borders. Carbolic acid or arsenical poisons a...
-Weed Poisons. Continued
The following notes on the effect of the copper sulfate solution on different plants are from observations and reports from various sources: Plants reported killed by copper sulfate solutions: wi...
-Treatment for Particular Weeds
Poison ivy and similar woody-rooted pests can be eradicated by cutting off the tops in hot, dry weather in midsummer and pouring a saturated solution of caustic soda about the roots. The arsenical sol...
-Treatment for Particular Weeds. Continued
Canada thistle (Carduus arvensis). Perennial. The plant should never be allowed to produce seeds, and the underground stems, which are usually 3 to 12 inches under ground, must be removed or starved b...
-Weeds in Lawns
Weeds usually come up thickly in newly sown lawns. They are to be prevented by the use of commercial fertilizers or very clean manure and clean grass-seed. Clean June-grass, or blue-grass, seed is usu...
-Chapter XIV Pests and Nuisances
Various kinds of mammals and birds become plagues and nuisances at times, sometimes destroying plants, sometimes annoying human beings; and with these may be included mosquitoes and flies. Roaming ...
-Hot to Get Rid of Mice and Rats
To prevent mice from girdling trees in winter. In heeling-in young trees in the fall, do not use straw or litter, in which mice can make their nests. In orchards, see that tall grass, corn-husks, o...
-How To Keep Rabbits Away
Wash for keeping rabbits, sheep, and mice away from trees. Some writers recommend fresh lime, slaked with soft water (old soap-suds are best); make the wash the thickness of fence or house wash. Wh...
-How To Keep Rabbits Away. Continued
2. Wrapping. When one has only a few trees, such as fruit or shade trees, the most satisfactory method is to wrap them. An ordinary tree veneer which is made of very thin wood may ...
-Ground Squirrel or Spermophile Remedies
1. Secure 5 quarts of clean wheat; scald with water; drain. Take 2/3 cup of white sugar, dissolve with sufficient water to make a syrup; add 1 ounce powdered strychnine, stir thoroughly u...
-Moles Remedies
Moles are rather easily poisoned by inserting in the runways corn in the milk stage, freshly cut from the ear, and poisoned with strychnine solution. Moles live in loose and sandy land. If the plac...
-Other Pest Animal Remedies
Woodchucks or Ground-hogs Remedies These animals are readily trapped at the mouths of their burrows. They are also easily killed by the vapor of bisulfid of carbon, the liquid being poured on a han...
-Pestiferous Birds
Bird poisons. 1. Place a shallow box on the end of a pole, and put it four or five feet from the ground to keep the poison out of the way of domestic fowls. In the box sprinkle corn-meal and a very...
-Mosquitoes Extermination And Prevention
The discovery that certain mosquitoes carry the organisms of malaria and other diseases has started a crusade against these pests. We now feel that mosquitoes must be controlled, both as a sanitary me...
-Mosquitoes Extermination And Prevention. Continued
Culicide is made of equal parts by weight of carbolic acid crystals and gum camphor. Melt the acid crystals over a gentle heat, and pour slowly over the gum. The acid dissolves the camphor, and makes ...
-The House-Fly Control
(C. R. Crosby) The typhoid fly, or house-fly (Musca domestica). For ages this ubiquitous pest has been looked upon as a harmless though annoying and unpleasant nuisance, and its presence has bee...
-Slime on Ponds
The slime, or algae, on ponds may be destroyed by copper sulfate. The common spirogyra is dispatched by 1 part of the sulfate to 25,000,000 parts of water, and other forms by a stronger solution. Thes...
-Chapter XV Fungicides and Germicides for Plant Diseases
By Donald Reddick Plant diseases are caused by parasitic fungi or by bacteria, or other vegetable parasites; or by forms of physiological disturbance. Each disease calls for special treatment. Most...
-Fungicides and Germicides for Plant Diseases. Part 2
To make 50 gallons of bordeaux mixture, proceed as follows: (1) Pulverize 5 pounds of copper sulfate (blue vitriol), place in a glass, wooden, or brass vessel, and add two or three gallons of hot wate...
-Fungicides and Germicides for Plant Diseases. Part 3
Corrosive sublimate (mercuric bichloride). Used for disinfecting pruned stubs and cleaned-out cankers, at the rate of one part in 1000 parts of water. Can be secured from the druggist in table...
-Fungicides and Germicides for Plant Diseases. Part 4
By using boiling water and allowing the hot mixture to stand for half an hour, a stronger spray mixture of the above can be secured. It cannot be used safely on peaches, but has been used successfully...
-Chapter XVI Plant Diseases
By Donald Reddick Some knowledge of the habits of the organism causing a disease is usually necessary in order successfully to combat it and prevent its ravages. Those diseases caused by powdery mi...
-Plant Diseases. Continued
Control. - The treatment is very different in the two cases. If the spore is on the surface of the seed, it may be killed with formalin; but if the seed is infected internally, a different treatment i...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops
Alfalfa. Leaf Spot (Pseudopeziza medicaginis). Small black spots on the leaves. Causes the leaves to turn yellow and fall. Control. Frequent close mowing usually holds the ...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 2
Control. Destroy red cedars in the neighborhood, also wild apples and hawthorns. Spray thoroughly in the spring as for scab. Scab (Venturia incequalis). Olive green, brownish or blackish...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 3
Control. - Destroy affected seedlings. Rotate crops, and do not follow with other susceptible crops. Keep down weeds on which disease occurs. Lime the soil at least eighteen months before planting to ...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 4
Control. - Pick and burn diseased leaves. Spray the plants with bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50. Rust (Puccinia chrysanthemi). - Reddish brown rust pustules on the leaves. Control. - Avoid wetting the ...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 5
Control. - No satisfactory method known. The most that can be done is to go over the patch three or four times during the summer, cut out and burn the blighted canes. Ginseng. Blight (Alternaria panac...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 6
Crown-gall or Black Knot (Bacterium tumefaciens). - A tu-merous, gnarled outgrowth on roots and stems, especially on European varieties. Frost injury often forms an infection court for the bacteria. ...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 7
Control. - Spray with bordeaux mixture, 5-5-50, to which has been added one gallon of resin-sal-soda sticker. The first application should be made when the third leaf has developed, and the applicati...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 8
Root-gall, Root-Knot, Crown-gall, Hairy-root (Bacterium tumefaciens). Hairy roots or tumerous outgrowths on the roots and root crowns ; sometimes occurs on trunks and limbs. Primarily a nurser...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 9
Control. In nurseries spray with bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50. In the orchard spray as for pear scab, with perhaps one additional application. Leaf-spot (Mycosphaerella sentina). Small lect...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 10
Control. - Reject all diseased tubers for seed. Practice a rotation in which potatoes are not grown on the soil for at least two years. Scab (Oospora scabies). - A scabby and pitted roughness of po...
-Diseases of Different Plants or Crops. Part 11
Control. - Spraying as for leaf-spot ; dusting with sulfur flour. Sweet-potato. Black-rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata). Causing black shank of the plant and a black rot of the tuber. The spots on ...
-Chapter XVII Insecticidal Materials and Practices
By C. R. Crosby The results secured from the use of an insecticide or fungicide depend upon the operator. Timeliness, thoroughness, and persistence are the watchwords of success. It is easier to ke...
-Insecticidal Materials and Practices. Continued
Fumigation of greenhouses. No general formula can be given for fumigating the different kinds of plants grown in greenhouses, as the species and varieties differ greatly in their ability to wi...
-Insecticidal Substances
Arsenic. Known to chemists as arsenious acid, or white oxide of arsenic. It is considered an unsafe insecticide, as its color allows it to be mistaken for other substances ; but in its various...
-Insecticidal Substances. Part 2
Spraying with paris green or london purple does not endanger stock pastured in the orchard. Combinations of Arsenicals and Fungicides. Arsenicals may be used in connection with some fungicides...
-Insecticidal Substances. Part 3
For use on dormant trees, dilute with from 5 to 7 parts of water. For killing plant-lice on foliage dilute with from 10 to 15 parts of water. Crude oil emulsion is made in the same way by substituting...
-Insecticidal Substances. Part 4
Dilutions of Concentrated Lime-Sulfur Solutions for Spraying (N. Y. Exp. Sta.) 3. Commercial concentrated mixtures. The lime-sulfur may be purchased in the concentrated form and the t...
-Insecticidal Substances. Part 5
Used in California against the cottony cushion scale and the brown apricot scale. Soaps, whale-oil, or fish-oil soap. Soaps are effective insecticides for plant-lice. Dissolve in hot water and...
-Chapter XVIII Injurious Insects, with Treatment
By C. R. Crosby Insects are of two kinds as respects their manner of taking food, the mandibulate insects, or those that chew or bite their food, as larvae ( worms ) and most beetles ; an...
-Injurious Insects, with Treatment. Continued
Treatment. - Bordeaux mixture applied liberally is the best remedy, it drives them away. Four-striped Plant-bug (Paecilocapsus lineatus). - A bright yellow, black-striped bug about one-thir...
-Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Apple. Apple-bucculatrix (Bucculatrix pomifoliella). - A minute yellow or green larva feeding upon the upper surface of the leaves, causing the lower surface to turn brown. The cocoons are white and s...
-2 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect.
Leaf Blister Mite (Eriophyes pyri). - The presence of this minute mite is indicated by small irregular brownish blisters on the leaves. Treatment. - Spray in late fall or early spring with lime-s...
-3 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Tent-caterpillars (Malacosoma americana and M. disstria). -Larva, nearly two inches long, spotted and striped with yellow, white, and black ; feeding upon the leaves. They congregate in tents or in cl...
-4 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect.
Bean. Bean-weevil or Bean-bug (Bruchus obtectus). - Closely resembles the pea-weevil, which see for description and remedies. Holding over the seed will be of no value with this insect. Seed-corn Magg...
-5 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Maggot. See under Cabbage, p. 311. Celery. Carrot Rust-fly (Psila rosae). Minute whitish yellow maggots infesting the roots and stunting the plants. Preventive. Late so...
-6 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Wire-worms (Elateridae). Hard, yellowish, or reddish, cylindrical larvae feeding on the roots. Preventives. Crop rotation ; let clover intervene between sod and corn, planting the c...
-7 Insects classified under the Plants they chiefly Affect
Mexican Boll-weevil (Anthonomus grandis). A snout beetle about one-fourth inch in length, which lays its eggs in the squares and bolls, producing a grub which eats out the contents. Treatme...
-8 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect.
Striped Cucumber-beetle (Diabrotica vittata). Beetle, one-fourth inch long, yellow with black stripes, feeding on leaves. Larva one-eighth inch long and size of a pin, feeding on roots; two...
-9 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Grape-slug or Saw-fly (Selandria vitis). Larva about one-half inch long, yellowish green with black points, feeding upon the leaves ; two broods. Remedies. Arsenicals. Hellebore....
-10 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Hollyhock. Bug (Orthotylus delicatus).A small green bug, attacking the hollyhock with great damage. Treatment. Kerosene emulsion. Tobacco extracts. House-plants. See Aphides...
-11 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect.
Parsley. Parsley-worm (Papilio asterias). Larva, inch and a half long, light yellow or greenish yellow with lines and spots ; feeding upon leaves of parsley, celery, carrot, etc. Whe...
-12 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Rose-beetle. See under Grape and Apple, pp. 308, 322. Red-legged Flea-beetle (Haltica rufipes). A flea-beetle feeding on the leaves of peach trees, often in great numbers. Remedi...
-13 Insects classified under the Plants they chiefly Affect
Borer (Sesia scituta). A wood-boring caterpillar working in the sapwood. Treatment. Digging out. Twig-girdlers. See under Persimmon below. Rose-beetle. See under Gra...
-14 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Flea-beetles (Halticini). Small, dark-colored jumping beetles that riddle the leaves with holes. See p. 303. Preventive. Bordeaux mixture as applied for potato blight acts as a ...
-15 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Squash. Borer or Root-borer (Melittia satyriniformis). Soft, white, grub-like larva which bores inside the stem and causes rot to develop, killing the vine. Preventives. Plant ear...
-16 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect.
Mealy-bug (Pseudococcus calceolariae). Common on sugar-cane in the southern parishes of Louisiana, and recorded further in the United States from Florida and California. Known in Louisiana as ...
-17 Insects Classified Under The Plants They Chiefly Affect
Tomato-worm (Phlegethontius sexta and P. quinquemaculata). A very large green worm feeding upon the stems and leaves of the tomato and husk tomato. Seldom abundant enough to be very serious ; k...
-Chapter XIX Live-stock Rules and Records
Farm live-stock, as the term is usually understood, includes the mammals that produce edible products or perform agricultural labor, as the cow, the horse, the sheep, the goat, the swine. Strictly spe...
-Gestation and Incubation Figures
The period of gestation is the time between the impregnation of the ovum and the birth of the young. In egg-laying animals it is the period of incubation. The length of this period is subject to consi...
-Gestation and Incubation Figures. Part 2
Cat...........................3-6 Rabbit..........................4-8 Squirrel.........................3-6 Single-birthed animals occasionally bear twins. All multiple-birthed animals are exc...
-Gestation and Incubation Figures. Part 3
The success of storage depends not alone on the control and accuracy of temperature maintained, but on control of humidity, and in some cases on pronounced circulation of air. For temperatures for fru...
-Gestation and Incubation Figures. Part 4
8. Composite-Test Sample. At the time the test of the milk is made, a sample, comprising as many cubic centimeters of milk as the number of pounds in the milking, is placed in a pint fruit...
-Gestation and Incubation Figures. Part 5
Holstein-Friesian records. The Holstein-Friesian Association has four prize divisions, with seven classes in each division. Following are the leading records for each class in three of the division...
-Gestation and Incubation Figures. Part 6
Year's butter-fat record. If record is commenced the day the animal is two years old, or previous to that day, she must produce within one year from the date, 250.5 lb. butter fat. For each da...
-Guernsey Records
Class B. 4 1/2 to 5 years Name of Cow Age Lb. Milk Lb. Butter Fat Per Cent Butter Fat Yr. Mo. ...
-Guernsey Records. Part 2
Sig Dagmar 147286, 20 lb. 2.5 oz. in seven days. Butter-Fat. Countess Matilda 74928, 16 lb. 15.5 oz. in seven days. Milk. Sig Dagmar 147286, 385 lb. 13 oz. in seven days. Auth...
-Guernsey Records. Part 3
The Abbott, b. g., by Chimes, 5348........... 2 : 031/4 Alix, b. m., by Patronage, 4143............. 2 : 033/4 Highball, b. g., by Dr. Hooker, 24518.........
-Guernsey Records. Part 4
With Running Mate Against Time Flying Jib, p., b. g, by Algona..........1894 1: 581/4 ...
-Fast Horses
Fastest records for two miles In Harness Race Monette, bl. m., by Monon...........1894 4:45 In Harness Against Time The Harvester, br. h., by Walnut Hall........1910 ...
-Fast Horses. Part 2
Summary for one herd of 16 cows for the year, February to February Age of Cow Lb. of Milk given for the Year Average Per Cent Fat Value of Milk fo...
-Fast Horses. Part 3
The cost of the above should be approximately as follows : Wages of man one year at $50 per month.......... $600.00 Extra glassware and breakage.............. &...
-Chapter XX Poultry
The term poultry is used to designate all birds that are in the nature of farm animals or farm live-stock, as chickens, geese, ducks, turkeys. Birds grown merely as pets or fancy animals, or to sto...
-Score-Cards For Eggs
Seconds include mixed eggs both of size and color, but they must be necessarily fresh. This grade would take ordinary farmers' fresh eggs. All preserved and cold storage eggs are debarred by the ...
-Score-Cards For Eggs. Continued
Temperature, second week. - The outside temperature has less influence over the machine temperature after the first week, owing to the increasing amount of animal heat given off by the growing embryos...
-Poultry Feeding
Cornell ration for egg-production Proportion about 2 lb. grain to 1 lb. ground feed. Cabbage, beets, sprouted oats or grass; oyster shells; grit; water. Results (1909-1910) Best pull...
-Poultry Feeding. Part 2
A weight, which may consist of an old tomato can half filled with stones and cement, is immediately attached by means of a wire hook to the lower mandible of the bird. Then by grasping the wings close...
-Poultry Feeding. Part 3
The best method of preservation is as follows : One part of water-glass (sodium silicate) mixed with nine parts of boiled spring water. Put the eggs in a stoneware crock when gathered from the nests, ...
-Poultry Feeding. Part 4
Treatment. The same measures are advised as for lice and mites. Chicken Tick (Argas miniatus). A reddish brown tick, somewhat larger than the common bedbug, infesting poultry in the...
-Outline for Critical Examination of a Poultry Farm (Rice)
Visit the farm and make careful observations to secure answers to the following questions: Part I The location 1. Where is the farm located ? (a) State......-----(6) Cou...
-Chapter XXI Exhibiting and Judging Live-stock. Market Grades
It is intended in this chapter to give a sample plan for the administering of a live-stock exhibition, standards to aid in the making of judgments of the qualities of animals, and a view of a few regu...
-Exhibiting and Judging Live-stock. Market Grades. Part 2
Interference with judges. 14. No person other than the judges, except the officers of the Fair Board, the superintendent, and the grooms in charge, will be permitted to go into the rings wher...
-Exhibiting and Judging Live-stock. Market Grades. Part 3
Payment of premiums. 28. Premiums are payable in cash (check) except when cups, medals, or diplomas are specified or desired in lieu of cash. Medals and diplomas will be forwarded as directed...
-Exhibiting and Judging Live-stock. Market Grades. Part 4
Conditions. 41. Entries will close the tenth day before the Fair opens at 11 o'clock p.m. Records made within fifteen days no bar. Entrance fee five per cent of purse, with five per cent addi...
-Score-cards for Farm Animals
Herewith are given sample score-cards for different species and classes of animals. For score-cards of the breeds see Vol. III, Cyclo. Amer. Agr. (from which most of the following cards, by F. B...
-Light-horse score-card
Class, Gelding General characters Form. - Light, lean, lithe and muscular; long-legged, short in back; having general appearance indicative of extreme activity. Quality. Extreme refin...
-Light-horse score-card. Part 2
Total...................... 100 Student's card for the proportions of the horse (Cornell) Name of Animal &...
-Light-horse score-card. Part 3
Fig. 10. - Parts of the cow. 1, muzzle ; 2, face ; 3, forehead ; 4, throat; 5, neck ; 6, dewlap ; 7, shoulder ; 8, wethers ; 9, back ; 91, crops ; 10, chine ; 11, ribs ; 12, fore ribs ; 121 fore...
-Beef-cattle score-card
Class, Breeding Bulls General characters Form. Compact, thick-set, and short-legged in appearance; body deep, thick, and of medium length; top line straight, under line low in flanks; fo...
-Dairy-cattle score-card
Class, Breeding Females General characters Form. - Spare, angular, moderately short-legged ; barrel, capacious; hind quarters, wide and deep ; scale, medium to large, not greatly above average f...
-Mutton-sheep score-card Class, Fat Wethers General characters
Form. Compact, thick-set and short-legged; body deep, thick, and of medium length ; top line straight; under line low in flanks ; scale large for age. Quality. General refinement...
-Points Of Sheep
Breeding-sheep score-card General characters Form. Compact, thick-set, and short-legged; body deep, thick, and of medium length ; top line straight; under line low in flanks ; scale larg...
-Fat-hog score-card
Fig. 12. - Parts of the hog. a, snout; b, ear: c, neck; d, jowl; e, shoulder; f, back; g, loin; h, rump; j, ham; k, side or ribs; I, flank; m, belly; n, fore flank; o, fore leg; p, hind leg (Cy...
-Bacon-hog score-card General characters
Form. Long, deep, smooth, and of medium width; sides straight; legs short for the breed ; head light; back slightly arched, under line straight; scale large for age ; standard weight 170-200 p...
-Market Classes and Grades
Beef, veal, mutton, and pork recognized in Chicago wholesale markets. (Hall, Illinois Station.) Beef The general divisions of the beef trade are (1) Carcass Beef, (2) Beef Cuts, and (3) Cured Be...
-Grades Of Pork And Swine
Roughs. Stags. Boars. Miscellaneous: Roasting pigs, 15 to 30 lb. Feeders. Governments. Pen-holders. Dead hogs. Roughs are hogs of all sizes that are coarse, rough, and lacking in ...
-Chapter XXII Computing the Ration for Farm Animals
Modern experiments (principally German) have resulted in formulating standard rations for different animals at different ages and under different conditions. These feeding standards are only approxima...
-Computing the Ration for Farm Animals. Continued
P. C. H. Fat For cow weighing 1200 lbs. and yielding 20 lbs. of 4 per cent milk: P. C. H. Fat Nutrients for 20 lbs. milk, ...
-The German Standards
Computing the Balanced Ration by the Wolff-Lehmann Standards The usual method of computing rations, however, is by the use of the German standards (Table I) as a basis, and then determining from th...
-The German Standards. Continued
(2) Hay, 10 lb. ; corn-stalks, ad lib. ; wheat bran, 3 lb. ; corn meal, 2 lb. ; cottonseed meal, 2 lb. (3) Roots, 60 lb. ; stover, ad lib. ; oats, 3 lb. ; bran, 3 lb. ; glu...
-Digestibility Of Feeding-Stuffs
Table III - Continued Table IV. Average Fertilizing Constituents in American Feeding-stuffs ...
-Fertilizing Values In Feeding-Stuffs
Table IV - Continued Table IV - Continued ...
-Chapter XXIII External Parasites of Animals
The many diseases of farm live-stock cannot be treated in a book of this kind, and very brief advice might be more dangerous than useful; but the ticks, lice, fleas, and similar things that infest ani...
-Texas Ticks
To prepare the stock emulsion for use, it is diluted with water to a 20 or 25 per cent emulsion. In order to obtain a 20 per cent emulsion of oil, it is necessary to use one part of the stock emulsion...
-Texas Ticks. Continued
Cattle should always be watered a short time before they are dipped. After they emerge from the vat they should be kept on a draining-floor until the dip ceases to run from their bodies ; then they sh...
-Other External Parasites of Farm Animals (Crosby)
The insecticides. Following are the leading insecticidal substances used against fleas, lice, ticks, and other pests of farm live-stock: Lime-and-sulfur dip. Unslaked lime...............
-The Kinds Of Parasites
Following are the leading external parasites of cattle, horses, sheep and swine (for parasites of poultry, see page 377). Cattle. Ox bot-fly or warble-fly (Hypoderma bovis and H. lineata). ...
-The Kinds Of Parasites. Continued
Screw-worm fly (Chrysomyia macellaria). Whitish maggots, three-fourths inch in length when full grown, infesting sores and wounds of animals in the Southern States. The eggs are laid on the wo...
-Chapter XXIV Milk and Milk Products; Dairy Farms
Dairying comprises two occupations, dairy husbandry, or the producing of milk ; and dairy industry, or the marketing and manufacturing of milk and milk products. This chapter is designed to co...
-Composition Of Milk
Variation in average composition of 574 samples of market butter samples collected each month for a period of one year (Illinois Experiment Station). Month Collected Number ...
-Milk Tests
In detail the test is made as follows : The milk to be sampled is thoroughly mixed by pouring it several times from one vessel to another. By means of a milk pipette, or measure, graduated to hold 17....
-Milk Tests. Part 2
The lactometer test for specific gravity in milk (Pearson). As the specific gravity of milk is markedly changed when it is adulterated by the addition of water or the removal of cream, the lactomet...
-Milk Tests. Part 3
Draw a rectangle, placing the per cent of fat in the cream at the upper left-hand corner, and the per cent of fat of the milk at the lower left-hand corner. Place the desired per cent of fat in the ce...
-Milk Tests. Part 4
While the sample is heating it should be shaken from time to time, as this breaks up the blanket of casein on the surface and hastens the escape of moisture. As soon as the casein has lost its snow-wh...
-Milk Tests. Part 5
Care should be taken not to run in too much silver nitrate. If too much silver nitrate is used, the color will be a dull brick-red, and incorrect results will be obtained. An normal solut...
-Milk Tests. Part 6
Test for determining casein in milk (Van Slyke and Bosworth). A given amount of milk, diluted with water, is made neutral to phe-nolphthalein solution by addition of a solution of sodium hydroxid. ...
-Milk Tests. Part 7
8. The starter is ripe when a curd forms. This curd should be soft and like custard in appearance. 9. After the starter is ripe, hold it at 50 F. or a few degrees lower until time ...
-Milk Tests. Part 8
This trouble may be avoided by using more starter, ripening at a higher temperature, say 75 F. to 80 F., and churning at a higher temperature, say 65 F. This again will not make the bes...
-Farm Butter-Making
Old cream makes poor-flavored butter. Probably the most common cause of poor-flavored butter is cream that has grown stale before being churned. Fine, fresh-tasting butter, with delicate flavors an...
-Farm Butter-Making. Part 2
Desirable Clean, creamery pleasant bouquet, aroma. Due to farm conditions Dirty (name cause if possible) Pails, cans, barn, milkhouse, etc. Weedy (name weed if possible) Barn...
-Farm Butter-Making. Part 3
8. Grades of butter must conform to the following requirements : Specials. 9. Shall comprise the highest grades of butter obtainable in the season when offered, under the various cla...
-Farm Butter-Making. Part 4
Isolation. Removal of cows to comfortable quarters outside of the dairy stable, when sick or at calving time. Location of stable. Elevated, with healthful surroundings. Lighting....
-Farm Butter-Making. Part 5
Is the stall comfortable ?.....How are the cows tied ? . Kind and quality of bedding....... Where are the cows kept when sick and at calving time? . . . Comfort of place..... ...
-Rules for the production of clean milk (Ross)
The presence of bacteria in milk is what causes the milk to become unfit for human food. If there were no germs in milk, it would keep sweet and wholesome indefinitely. The problem of producing clean ...
-Rules for care of milk by consumer
1. Do not leave milk sitting on the door step or other place exposed to dust and rays of the sun. 2. Do not keep milk in the same compartment with other food. 3. &n...
-Chapter XXV Construction, Farm Engineering, Mechanics
Farm engineering is concerned with layouts, and the projection of physical enterprises on the land, as surveying, laying out drains, irrigation works, roads, bridges, and the like. Farm mechan...
-Silo And Barn Figures
Approximate capacity of cylindrical silos for well-matured corn silage, in tons (King) Barn Figures A comparison of the cost of material in round and rectangular barns, including foundatio...
-Ropes. Tile-Draining
Tensile Strengths of Ropes Manila Rope 3 strands, 3g in. long Manila Rope 4 strands, 36 in. long Cast-steel Wire Rope 6 STRANDS Circumferenc...
-Tile-Draining
Average list price per one thousand (1000) feet of drain tile quoted by dealers in New York (Fippin). Subject to large discounts Diameter of Tile Price per 1000 Feet ...
-Road-drags
Use of the King road-drag (Chase). The use of the drag is more satisfactory if the road has first been crowned with a blade grader, but whenever this is not convenient and the traffic is not too he...
-Road-drags. Continued
The split-log road-drag (D. W. King). Two mistakes are commonly made in constructing a split-log drag. The first lies in making it too heavy. It should be so light that one man can easily lift it (...
-Data on Water
1 U.S. gallon = 231 cu. in. 1 U.S. gallon = 81/3 lb. 1 cu. ft. water = 62.5 lb. 1 cu. ft. water = 7.48 gal. Feet-head of water, and equivalent pressure Feet-Head Poun...
-Data on Water. Continued
Fig. 21. - Diagram to show power developed by 14-foot windmill, with different loads in different velocities. Figures in the right-hand column are pounds (Fuller). Fig. 2...
-Machinery and Motors
Rules for widths of belting d = diameter of either driving or driven pulley in inches. n = number of revolutions per minute of pulley considered. w4 = width in inches of single leather belting or of 4...
-Machinery and Motors. Continued
Refrigerating................... 1/2 to 25 The motor power of a stream (Rose). The power of a stream may be calculated by the following formula : P = Awh, in which A is the number o...
-Chapter XXVI Mason Work. Cements, Paints, Glues and Waxes
Any material that sets or hardens when dry is a cement ; and under this general name may therefore be included glues and materials used for mending or sticking together broken articles. As commonly us...
-Cement For Building
One-third barrel of plaster (stucco) will hard-finish 100 square yards plastering. One barrel of best lime will lay 1000 bricks. Two barrels of lime will lay one cord rubble-stone. One-half b...
-Floors, borders, walks, and foundations. Grout floor
1. To secure a good grout floor, make a good foundation of small stones or brickbats, and cover three or four inches thick with a thin mortar, made of two parts sharp sand and one part common ce...
-Mending Cements Cements for iron
1. (Slow setting.) Sal ammoniac, 2 ounces ; sulfur, 1 ounce; clean iron borings or filings reduced to powder, 12 pounds ; water enough to form a thin paste. Excellent for making a rust jo...
-Paints and Protective Compounds
Home-made washes for fences and out-buildings may be made by various combinations of lime and grease. The following are good formulas : 1. Slake fresh quicklime in water, and thin it ...
-Glues
Liquid glue. 1. Dissolve 2 pounds of best pale glue in a quart of water in a covered vessel, placed in a hot-water bath; when cold, add to it 7 ounces of commercial nitric acid. When cold p...
-Waxes for Grafting and for Covering Wounds
Common resin and beeswax waxes. 1. A standard and reliable wax is as follows : Resin, 4 parts by weight. Beeswax, 2 parts by weight. Tallow (rendered), 1 part by weight. Melt...
-Waxed string and bandages
1. Waxed bandage. Waxed bandages are very useful for covering wounds where the bark has been broken or injured. They are prepared as follows. Old cloth is torn into strips of the desired widt...
-Covers for wounds
Before applying any dressing, the wounds should be thoroughly cleaned. Cut out or remove the broken bark and the decayed wood. It is also advisable to disinfect with Bordeaux mixture or a solution of ...
-Chapter XXVII Computation Tables
Most of the tables and estimates that the farmer needs in his figuring will be found in this chapter ; but greenhouse computations will be found in Chapter XI, silos and other construction in Chapt...
-Metric Tables
Paper and book denominations 24 sheets................=1 quire. 20 quires................= 1 ream. 2 reams................=1 bundle. 5 bundles................=1 bale. 500 sheets i...
-Metric Weights and Measures
Metric weight Names Number of Grams Equivalents in Denominations of Avoirdupois Weight Millier or Tonneau......... 1,000,000 ...
-Metric Weights and Measures. Continued
1 U. S. liquid quart is 0.9 of liter........... (.946) 1 U. S. liquid gallon is 3.7 liters............. (3.785...
-Money Tables
English Money 4 farthings (qr.) ...........= 1 penny (d.). 12 pence ..............=1 shilling (s.). 20shillings..........
-Interest Table
Legal rates of interest - Continued 1 Maine, 15 per cent by contract unless stipulated. 2 New York, on collateral loans of $5000 and upward, any rate agreed. Wage-Tables ...
-Thermometer Scales
Fahrenheit. The freezing-point is taken as the thirty-second degree of the scale, and 180 degrees are made between that and the boiling-point, which therefore becomes 212. The zero of Fahr...
-Miscellaneous Measures, Weights, and Estimates
Measures and dimensions of many kinds 1/12 of an inch.............. = a line (American). 1/10 of an inch.............. = a line (French). 3inches...................
-Fruit Figures
Weights of various varieties of apples per bushel The following varieties, just from the trees in October, gave the following weights for a heaped bushel (Michigan): Baldwin...........&n...
-Capacities of Pipes and Tanks
Quantity of water held by pipes of various sizes Diameter of &nbs...
-Legal Weights of the Bushel
List of products for which legal weights have been fixed in but one or two states Apple seeds, forty pounds (Rhode Island and Tennessee). Beggarweed seed, sixty-two pounds (Florida). Blackber...
-Government Townships
The word town has a variety of meanings. It is commonly loosely used to designate merely a settlement or a community. In New England, however, it is the primary administrative division. It is ther...
-Chapter XXVIII Collecting and Preserving Specimens for Cabinets or Exhibition. Perfumery. Labels
Every good farm establishment should have a room or a cabinet in which the museum materials of the particular farm are collected, soils, minerals, plants, insects, curiosities, and the like. ...
-Samples of Seeds and Grains
Every farmer should have samples in his study or elsewhere of the common commercial grades of wheat, oats, and other grains, and specimens of the seeds of the leading grasses and the most frequent wee...
-Collecting and Preserving Plants for Herbaria
Collect samples of all parts of the plant, lower and upper leaves, stem, flowers, fruit, and in most cases roots. In small species, those two feet high or less, the whole plant should be taken...
-Collecting and Preserving Plants for Herbaria. Part 2
3. Plants may also be plunged in a boiling solution of 1 part of salicylic acid and 600 of alcohol, and then dried in bibulous paper. But this should be done very rapidly, violet flowers especia...
-Collecting and Preserving Plants for Herbaria. Part 3
Care should be taken that the flowers are cut in dry weather, and that while lying in the sand no part of a flower shall touch another part, as this always spoils the color and causes decay. Sand shou...
-Collecting and Preserving Insects
Flying insects are caught in a net made of mosquito-bar, or cheesecloth after the fashion of the minnow-net. The material is made into a bag about a yard deep, and about a foot in width at the top. Th...
-Making Perfumery at Home
Permanent Attar or Otto of Roses (Ellwanger). The roses employed should be just blown, of the sweetest-smelling kinds, gathered in as dry a state as possible. After each gathering, sprea...
-The Preservation of Fruits for Exhibition Purposes
Six Canadian recipes (Frank T. Shutt, Experimental Farm, Ottawa, 1911). Specimens of course not edible. In the preparation of these fluids, it is desirable to employ distilled water, usually obt...
-Preservative Fluids
Fluid No. 1. Formaldehyde Formaldehyde (formalin)............... 1 part Alcohol..................... 5 parts Water, to make..................50 parts To prepare one g...
-Preservative Fluids. Continued
Red: No. 3, closely followed by No. 2, are successful preservatives for the fruit. White : Nos. 2 and 3 are almost equally satisfactory. Gooseberries. No. 5 ; this fluid has given very good r...
-Jars for Specimens
The jars, bottles, or boxes in which specimens are kept should be tight, to prevent evaporation, to keep out dust and mold, and to protect from insects. There are specially made museum jars of many at...
-Chapter XXIX Directories
The farmer now secures his technical information from the colleges and schools of agriculture and experiment stations in the different states, territories, and provinces (directories given on the succ...
-Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations in the United States
The following table shows the number of acres of land received by each state from the Land-Grant Act of 1862, the date of establishment of the institution that cares for the agricultural work, and the...
-Undergraduate schools and departments
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, College of Forestry. University of Washington, Seattle, School of Forestry (estab. 1907). Colorado College, Colorado Springs, School of Forestry (established 1...
-Veterinary Institutions
North American Veterinary Colleges and Departments, 1910-11 Colleges, schools, and divisions, giving full courses or leading to veterinary degrees Alabama Polytechnic Institute, College of Veter...
-Departments and chairs
A regular professor or teacher in veterinary science is also provided in the institution carrying the college of agriculture in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, I...
-Macmillan books by L. H. Bailey
The following pages contain advertisements of a few of the Macmillan books by the same author and on kindred subjects Cyclopedia of American Agriculture Edited by L. H. Bailey Director of t...
-Books On Agriculture
On Selection of Land, etc. Thomas F. Hunt's How to Choose a Farm...... $i 75 net E.W. Hilgard's Soils : Their Formation and Relations to Climate and Plant Growth........
-Books On Agriculture. Continued
W. D. Frost's Laboratory Guide in Elementary Bacteriology . . . 1 60 net I. P. Sheldon's The Farm and the Dairy....... 1 00 net ...









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