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Manual Of Fruit Diseases | by Lex R. Hesler



It is the common opinion of authorities that fruit-growers lose millions of dollars annually on account of diseases of their crops. It has been estimated that 75 per cent of this loss may be prevented by spraying - the chief method of fruit - disease control...

TitleManual Of Fruit Diseases
AuthorLex R. Hesler
PublisherThe Macmillan Company
Year1917
Copyright1917, The Macmillan Company
AmazonManual Of Fruit Diseases
-Preface
It is the common opinion of authorities that fruit-growers lose millions of dollars annually on account of diseases of their crops. It has been estimated that 75 per cent of this loss may be prevented...
-Chapter I. Apple Diseases
Apples, wherever they grow and of whatever variety, are subject to diseases and injuries of one kind or another. Very few varieties are famous because of their marked resistance to all, or even one, i...
-Scab, Caused By Venturia Inaequalis (Cooke) Winter
The scab disease of the apple is universally the best known of all fungous troubles affecting this fruit. While it attacks only the apple and certain closely related species, its ubiquitous nature acc...
-Scab, Caused By Venturia Inaequalis (Cooke) Winter. Continued
As the spots grow older the delicate fungal coating becomes extinct at the center, and exposed at this point is the brown corky layer of the host-tissue. This frequently becomes checked and cracked. I...
-Control Of Apple Scab
The destruction of fallen leaves would appear to lessen the primary infection. But in actual practice that method alone is not reliable and at best is only to supplement spraying or dusting. Spraying ...
-Bitter Rot, Caused By Glomerella Cingulata (Stoneman) Sp. And Von S
While this disease occurs on a great variety of hosts, it is of most consequence on the apple. On this fruit it is almost invariably called Bitter Rot, in spite of the apparent unfitness of the name. ...
-Bitter Rot Is Not Known To Occur On The Leaves - Cause Of Bitter Rot
The pathogene causing this disease is Glomerella cingalata. The fact that the same organism is responsible for both the rot and canker forms of the disease has been fully established. For example, the...
-Apple Fire Blight, Caused By Bacillus Amylovorus (Burr.) Trev
The apple and the wild crab are commonly attacked by Fire Blight. In the nursery these forms are more seriously affected than pears. In the young orchard the disease is also injurious, but old bearing...
-Stippen, Or Bitter Pit Caused By Fluctuating Water Supply
It is difficult to estimate the importance of this disease. Apples are not destroyed, but their appearance and quality are affected in a manner not easily measured. Figures representing reliable inves...
-Stippen, Or Bitter Pit Caused By Fluctuating Water Supply. Continued
Cause Of Stippen Stippen is a non - parasitic disease, one in which the primary cause is not certainly known, but one for which all parasitic organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, are in no way resp...
-Control Of Bitter Pit
From the foregoing statements the following facts regarding bitter - pit are to be considered in discussing control: (1) The disease has a very general geographical range. (2) Some varieties of appl...
-Apple Frost Injury, Caused By The Action Of Low Temperatures
The remarks which follow apply for the most part to that phase of Frost Injury commonly known as winter injury. Properly winter injury includes injury to all parts of the tree caused by low temperatur...
-Apple Frost Injury, Caused By Low Temperatures. Continued
Twigs are killed by winter temperatures. The last season's growth is killed back to a definite point. This occurs every year to some extent. It depends largely on whether or not the wood ripens proper...
-Control For Frost Injury
From the foregoing remarks and discussion it seems advisable to reiterate in discussing control the following points with reference to winter injury: (1) that while some varieties of apples are more s...
-Black Rot Canker, Caused By Physalospora Cydonice Arnaud
This disease is best known as the New York apple-tree canker, in those regions bordering the Great Lakes, because of the prominence of this form of the trouble in that section of the country. In New E...
-Black Rot Canker, Caused By Physalospora Cydonice Arnaud. Part 2
The disease on the leaves is noticeable from a time shortly following their unfolding to the end of the summer. One to several spots occur on a single leaf; in the latter case the lesions are scattere...
-Black Rot Canker. Part 3
In the removal of cankered limbs the cut may be made so that another shoot can grow in the approximate space left by the portion removed. The position of the canker on the limb determines the feasibil...
-Blotch, Caused By Phyllosticta Solitaria E. And E
This disease does its greatest damage in the central Mississippi Valley and is as well known in that section as Bitter Rot. Unlike Bitter Rot, however, apple blotch is less sporadic in its nature, app...
-Rust, Caused By Gymnosporangium Juniperi - Virginiance Schw
This disease is variously known as cedar rust, cedar rust of apple, cedar-apple, apple rust and cedar-flowers. It affects not only the apple and wild crab, but also the red cedar. Both kinds of plants...
-Rust, Caused By Gymnosporangium Juniperi Virginiance Schw. Continued
Fig. 18. - Cedar - apples in winter condition. Cause Of Apple Rust The apple rust pathogene is a fungus, Gymnosporangium Juniperi-virginiance, with a complex life-history as well as a long name. (...
-White Heart Rot, Caused By Fomes Igniarius (Fries) Gillet
This disease is far more important in the forest than in the orchard. Among some of the trees attacked, besides the apple, are beech, aspen, balm-of-Gilead, willow, sugar maple, red maple, striped map...
-Blister Canker, Caused By Nummularia Discreta Tul
This disease, which is known as Blister Canker, and Illinois canker, was first given attention in Illinois in 1902. Since that time it has been reported from the following states: Arkansas, Indiana, I...
-Northwestern Anthracnose, Caused By Neofabrcea Malicorticis (Cordley) Jackson
This is a disease peculiar to the Pacific Northwest. In consequence of this fact it is often called Pacific Coast canker and Northwestern apple-tree anthracnose. It is known to occur most abundantly i...
-Fruit Spot, Caused By Phoma Pomi Passer. ( = Cylindrosporium Pomi Brooks)
Nearly all varieties of apples suffer to a certain extent from Fruit Spots of one kind or another, but on some varieties like the Tolman Sweet and the Yellow Bellflower there is a specific kind of spo...
-Concluded Soft Rot Or Blue Mold, Caused By Penicillium Expansum (Lk.) Emend. Thorn
Probably no one who has had anything whatever to do with apples is absolutely ignorant of the Soft rot. It is the bane of the apple dealer and consumer, and of any one who attempts to hold this fruit ...
-Control Of Soft Rot
It is to be remembered that the spores of the Soft rot fungus are everywhere in the air, and on objects of all sorts. Rotten apples cannot be cured. But obviously there are many things which the growe...
-Armillaria Armillaria Root Rot, Caused By Armillaria Mellea (Fries) Quelet
This disease is variously known as the shoe-string fungus rot, crown Rot, mushroom Root Rot and Armillaria Root Rot. In addition to the apple many other trees and shrubs are known to be affected, some...
-Clitocybe Root Rot, Caused By Clitocybe Parasitica Wilcox
The name Clitocybe Root Rot is used to distinguish this disease from other similar root troubles. Like the Armillaria Root Rot it affects plants other than the apple, although the host-range is less e...
-Sooty blotch And Fly Speck, Caused By Leptothyrium Pomi (Mont, And Fr.) Sacc
Certain varieties of apples show this very familiar disfiguration. The Rhode Island, Peck Pleasant, Rome, Baldwin and Northern Spy are regarded as most susceptible, although in general the disease is ...
-Apple Crown Gall, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend
This disease, known as Crown Gall, crown knot, hairy-root, woolly knot, woolly-root and root gall, affects more particularly nursery stock. It is said that the Ben Davis, Early Harvest, Yellow Transpa...
-Powdery Mildew, Caused By Podosphoera Leucotricha (E. And E.) Salm
This mildew affects, in addition to the apple, the pear, quince, cherry, plum, thorn and juneberry. Seedling nursery - stock, wherever apples are grown, are likely to suffer to some extent from this d...
-Pink Rot, Caused By Cephalothecium Roseum (Fries) Cda
This is a disease which assumed greatest importance when the practice of piling and sweating apples was in vogue. At present this method of handling the fruit is not in use, consequently Pink Rot give...
-Water Core, Caused By Abnormal Water Relations
Some varieties of apples under certain conditions show a peculiar glassiness in and about the core. The Fall Pippin is said to be badly affected, and the disease has been observed on several other var...
-European Canker, Caused By Nectria Galligena Bres
This disease, troublesome for many years in Europe, was noted on apples in America about 1899. At this time it was found doing damage in Nova Scotia and in New York State. From time to time reports of...
-Superficial Bark Canker, Caused By Myxosporium Corticolum Edgerton
In certain of the northeastern states apples and pears are affected with a superficial Bark Canker. In practically every apple or pear orchard of New York and neighboring states there is more or less ...
-Spongy Dry Rot, Caused By Volutella Fructi Stevens And Hall
This disease was reported for the first time from North Carolina in 1907. Since that date it has been observed and recorded from several other states. It is common in New York on apples, but so far as...
-Hypochnus Leaf Blight, Caused By Hypochnus Ochroleuca Noack
It is in the humid regions of the Appalachian Mountain valleys that Hypochnus Leaf Blight is most destructive. The disease is known, however, from Maine to Florida, and is most common in North Carolin...
-Jonathan Spot Cause Not Definitely Determined
A number of different varieties of apples commonly show this peculiar spotting of the fruit. The Jonathan, Esopus, Wealthy, Ortley, Wolf River and some other varieties are severely affected; the disea...
-American Brown Rot, Caused By Sclerotinia Cinerea (Bon.) Schrot
Apple Brown Rot is at times erroneously called Black Rot; likewise Black Rot is often referred to as Brown Rot. The two diseases should not be confused. Apple Brown Rot is much less common than Black ...
-European Brown Rot, Caused By Sclerotinia Fructigena (Pers.) Schrot
This disease probably does not occur in America, but is discussed in order that a comparison of Brown Rot of pome - fruits in Europe and America may be made. European Brown Rot of apple affects the f...
-Rough Bark, Caused By Phomopsis Mali Roberts
This disease is known to growers as Rough Bark. It attracted more than usual attention in Virginia in 1909. The more careful observers have noted the disease on the Yellow Newtown; the trouble is so c...
-Ozonium Root Rot, Caused By Ozonium Omnivorum Shear
The apple and pear particularly are likely to suffer from this root-trouble occurring in the South and Southwest. To growers in these regions it is probably best known as a cotton disease; however, it...
-Rosette, Caused By Adverse Soil Conditions
This peculiar condition attracted attention in Colorado apple orchards following the severe winters of 1898 and 1899. In 1901 it was particularly noticeable in several orchards of one locality in that...
-Septobasidium Canker, Caused By Septobasidium Pedicillatum (Schw.) Pat. (Thelephora Pedicillata Schw.)
This is not a well - known disease. It was first noticed in America about 1889 in Texas and Alabama. In 1911 it was described from North Carolina, and is now said to occur in West Virginia and Georgia...
-Phytophthora Rot, Caused By Phytophthora Cactorum (Lib. And Cohn) Schrot
This interesting disease was given attention in Europe about ten years ago. In certain foreign countries Phytophthora Rot seems to be quite common and destructive. It is said to occur in Switzerland d...
-Chapter III. Apricot Diseases
The apricot is, as a rule, a very healthy tree. However, there are a few diseases which affect it to some extent. These troubles are practically identical with those of the peach and other stone-fruit...
-Brown Rot, Caused By Sclerotinia Cinerea (Bon.) Schrot. (Or Possibly S. Laxa Adand Ruhl)
The Brown Rot disease so common on peaches and plums is also prevalent on apricots in those regions where this fruit is cultivated. It is regarded as a serious disease of the apricot in Europe, causin...
-Scab, Caused By Cladosporium Carpophilum Thiim
The scab disease, or freckle as it is often called, occurs on stone-fruits other, than the apricot. In fact it affects the peach very commonly. Black scab spots are produced on the fruits and pale - g...
-Coryneum Fruit Spot, Caused By Coryneum Beijerinckii Oudem
.This disease is best known in California on the peach and is referred to as the California peach blight, shot-hole and Fruit Spot. In that state it was given special attention in the years 1907-1909....
-Rust, Caused By Puccinia Pruni - Spinosce Pers
This is a disease of stone-fruits in general. On the apricot it is especially prevalent in California. Reddish brown, dusty pustules are produced on the lower surfaces of the leaves (Fig. 43). This oc...
-Gummosis, Caused By Various Factors
The formation and exudation of gum is a phenomenon to which the apricot, like other stone-fruit trees, is subject. Gum-mosis, or gum - flow, is the result of injury due to such factors as mechanical a...
-Die Back
There appear to be at least two distinct Die Back diseases, one in California, which is regarded as being due to a lack of water and other factors, and the other has been described from Missouri cause...
-Black Spot, Caused By Bacterium Pruni E. F. Smith
As a rule, apricot fruits are less injured by Black Spot than those of the other susceptible stone - fruits like the peach and plum. However, certain varieties of apricots are severely affected; the R...
-Silver Leaf, Caused By Stereum Purpureum Fries
The apricot is not infrequently affected by Silver Leaf. The diseased trees are recognized by the peculiar ashen - gray color of their leaves. Accompanying this symptom is the production of little or ...
-Yellows, Cause Not Known
This is a specific disease, showing preference for the peach. It is said to affect the apricot occasionally. (See discussion under Peach, page 283.) ...
-Fire Blight, Caused By Bacillus Amylovorus (Burr.) Trev
The Fire Blight disease of pears, apples and quinces was found on the apricots in Colorado about 1902. It is of relatively little importance, owing to the economic position of the apricot in fruit - c...
-Chapter IV. Blackberry Diseases
There are several troubles with which blackberry-growers have to contend. Crown Gall, anthracnose and Orange Rust are the most serious enemies. Leaf Spot is common, but not destructive. The dewberry i...
-Crown Gall, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend
Blackberry represents but one of the many plants attacked by Bacterium tumefaciens. The galls (Fig. 45) produced are very much like those on raspberry, except that at the crown they are often larger a...
-Anthracnose, Caused By Gloeosporium Venetum Speg
The anthracnose of blackberries is the same as that on raspberries. The appearance of the disease on the various susceptible parts is similar in both cases. The causal organism is also the same. Rece...
-Orange Rust, Caused By Gymnoconia Interstitialis (Schlecht.) Lagerh
The leaves of blackberry are commonly affected with Orange Rust. The disease appears in the early spring as large, bright, orange - colored patches on the lower surface. The affected leaves are dwarfe...
-Double Blossom, Caused By Fusarium Rubi Winter
This is primarily a disease of the dewberry, although the cultivated blackberry is affected. The trouble occurs to some extent on the high - bush blackberry. Among the dewberries the Lucretia and Rath...
-Leaf Spot, Caused By Septoria Rubi Westd
The common Leaf Spot of blackberry affects also the raspberry and dewberry. It is found in almost every locality where these fruits are grown. While the disease is common, it is not often serious. Rat...
-Yellow Late Rust, Caused By Kuehneola Albida (Kuehn) P. Magn
This is a disease peculiar to wild and cultivated blackberries. It is found in Europe and in eastern North America. In the northern United States where it occurs there is no need for alarm on account ...
-Chapter V. Cherry Diseases
There are several diseases of the cherry tree which, if left uncurbed, may prove a serious menace to the growing of this fruit. Most cherry diseases, however, yield rather promptly to control measures...
-Brown Rot, Caused By Sclerotinia Cinerea (Bon.) Schrot
Cherries are subject to the same Brown Rot that affects peaches and plums. The trouble is extremely common on all these fruits, although perhaps the cherry is less seriously damaged than peaches and p...
-Leaf Blight, Caused By Coccomyces Hiemalis Higgins And C. Lutescens Higgins
It is probable that this disease is of foreign origin, the first report coming from Europe in 1884. Shortly thereafter the trouble became common in the United States. Special attention was given to th...
-Powdery Mildew, Caused By Podosphcera Oxyacanthce (Fries) De Bary
It is chiefly the young leaves and the tips of branches of young cherries that suffer from the effects of Powdery Mildew. But the disease is commonly observed also on mature trees. Furthermore the mil...
-Black Knot, Caused By Plowrightia Morbosa (Schw.) Sacc
Black Knot is perhaps the most conspicuous disease of cherries. It is common also to plums; in fact, plums suffer more from this disease than do cherries. However, cherries of many varieties are affec...
-Die Back, Caused By Valsa Leucostoma Fr. Var. Cincta Rolfs
This disease is common on stone- and pome - fruits everywhere. Considerable difficulty has been experienced in some sections of Germany because of the severe injury inflicted on cherry trees. In the U...
-Bacterial Gummosis, Caused By Bacterium Cerasi (Griffin)pseudomonas Cerasus Griffin
The phenomenon of gum-flow is common to stone and citrus fruit-trees. It results from stimulation produced by foreign factors of one kind or another. The flow of gum, gumming, or gummosis, is not a di...
-Leaf Rust, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend
The Crown Gall disease is so cosmopolitan in its host - range that the cherry could not be expected to escape in all cases. It is the younger trees that suffer, particularly if the knots, or galls, su...
-Leaf Rust, Caused By Puccinia Pruni - Spinosob Pers
On the leaves of many wild and cultivated cherries there is frequently a rust disease. It is said to occur more commonly in the eastern United States. The same disease is found on the peach and on wil...
-Witches' Broom, Caused By Exoascus Cerasi (Fckl.) Sadeb
Witches Broom is a peculiar type of gall in which there is an over-production of whole organs, resulting in a broom, or nest-like habit of growth. This name is in general use in North America. In Engl...
-Cherry Fire Blight, Caused By Bacillus Amylovorus (Burr.) Trev
It has been recently shown that Fire Blight, so common on pear, apple and quince, also affects the cherry in the Pacific Northwest. As yet, however, it is not very prevalent on this fruit and the dama...
-Scab, Caused By Cladosporium Carpophilum Thum
The scab disease of cherries is most prevalent on the peach, and is found only occasionally on the cherry. The extent of the damage done is believed to be inconsiderable. Olivaceous to brownish spots ...
-Chapter VI. Cranberry Diseases
The centers for the production of cranberries in the United States are New Jersey, Massachusetts and Wisconsin. So far as information is available, it appears that diseases of the cranberry are coinci...
-Scald, Caused By Guignardia Vaccinii Shear
The late varieties of cranberries suffer from a disease known as rot or scald. The term scald has been in general use for a long time, and it owes its origin to a belief of the growers that the soften...
-Gall, Caused By Synchytrium Vaccinii Thomas
Cranberries and closely allied plants are affected by the gall disease. Among these plants may be noted: azalea, sheep-laurel, calfkill, leather leaf, huckleberry, winter - green and sweet pepper bush...
-Hypertrophy, Caused By Exobasidium Oxycocci Rostrup
Hypertrophy, or false blossoms, is erratic in its behavior. Some bogs are free from it, while in others every plant may be diseased. The variety Matthews seems especially susceptible. The disease is ...
-Rot, Caused By Acanthorhynchus Vaccznii Shear
This disease was formerly confused with scald. As stated elsewhere, scald has been used broadly to indicate what is now known to be several distinct diseases. Rot was then included under the term scal...
-Anthracnose, Caused By Glomerella Cingulata (Stoneman) Sp. And Von S. Var. Vaccinii Shear
Although cranberry anthracnose was not reported prior to 1907, it has a wide geographical range through the eastern United States. It is a much less injurious disease than either scald or rot (see pag...
-Chapter VII. Currant Diseases
The currant is affected by but few diseases. Among the more common ones are: Mycosphserella Leaf Spot, anthracnose and Cane Blight. For the past few years currants, especially black kinds, and goosebe...
-Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot, Caused By Mycosphcerella Grossularice (Fr.) Lind
Both currants and gooseberries are commonly affected by this Leaf Spot. In certain regions, for example New York, the black varieties of currants, such as the Naples, are said to be more resistant tha...
-Anthracnose, Caused By Pseudopeziza Ribis Klebahn
This is a disease which appears to some extent every year, and only occasionally does it become epiphytotic. In New York it was serious in 1889 and 1901, and is one of the most common fungous diseases...
-Cane Blight, Caused By Botryosphceria Ribis Grossenbacher And Duggar
Currant Cane Blight or necrosis, also known as wilt and blight, affects chiefly the cultivated varieties of the red currant (Ribes vulgare). It is also found on the cultivated varieties of the black c...
-Currant European Rust, Caused By Cronartium Ribicola Fisch. Von Waldh
This disease, known also as currant felt rust and white pine blister rust, is caused by a fungus which was introduced into the United States from Europe a few years ago. The reforestation movement had...
-European Rust, Caused By Cronartium Ribicola Fisch. Von Waldh. Continued
The fungus lives from year to year in the bark of living pines (Fig. 57), finally fruiting and developing a crop of seciospores which blow to Ribes (currant and gooseberries) near by. In pines the org...
-Angular Leaf Spot, Caused By Cercospora Angulata Winter
This leaf disease of currants is common in Iowa and New York. It is also found in Ohio, Michigan, West Virginia, Maryland, Nebraska, Wisconsin and Rhode Island. In some years it is very destructive. ...
-American Powdery Mildew, Caused By Sphcerotheca Mors - Uvce (Schw.) B. And C
This is believed to be primarily a gooseberry disease both in Europe and in America. It may, however, cause considerable injury to currant bushes, as was noted in July, 1915, on black currants in a Ne...
-Chapter VIII. Gooseberry Diseases
Comparatively few gooseberry diseases are of a serious nature; they are seldom sufficiently injurious to create anxiety. The American Powdery Mildew and the Leaf Spot are the most prevalent diseases o...
-American Powdery Mildew, Caused By Sphcerotheca Mors - Uvae (Schw.) B. And C
The American gooseberry, mildew is indigenous to the United States, where it is has been known for at least three - quarters of a century. It probably originated in this country on wild gooseberries b...
-Leaf Spot, Caused By Mycosphcerella Grossularice (Fr.) Lind
This Leaf Spot disease of gooseberry (Fig. 58) is the same as that found on the currant. It prevails to some extent in America wherever the host is grown, having been reported from at least ten states...
-European Currant Rust, Caused By Cronartium Ribicola Fisch. Von Wald
The European Currant Rust, or white pine blister rust, is known to occur on the gooseberry, although it is notably less common on this plant than on the currant. The characteristics of the disease on ...
-Cluster Cup Rust, Caused By Puccinia Pringsheimiana Kleb
The cluster - cup rust is exceedingly common on wild gooseberries and currants and is known to some extent on cultivated forms. It occurs in Europe, Alaska and in many parts of the United States. Seri...
-Armillakia Root Rot, Caused By Armillaria Mellea (Fries) Quel
The gooseberry, among several other fruits, is at times badly injured or killed by Armillaria mellea in the state of Washington. The disease probably occurs elsewhere on the gooseberry, although it ha...
-Chapter IX. Grape Diseases
In most regions of grape-culture, the vine is as much subject to destructive diseases as any other of the less important fruits. But on the Pacific slope vines are notably free from fungous troubles, ...
-Black Rot, Caused By Guignardia Bidwellii (Ellis) Viala And Ravaz
The first important records of Black Rot come from Missouri in 1861, although the disease had been known many years prior to this date. About that time (1861) there was a rise in the grape industry ne...
-Downy Mildew, Caused By Plasmopara Viticola (B. And C.) Berl. And De Toni
This disease was first observed in America in 1834. Some time prior to 1878 the pathogene was carried to Europe on American stock, for in September of that year it was first recorded in France. During...
-Powdery Mildew, Caused By Uncinula Necator (Schw.) Burr
The Powdery Mildew, or oidium, of the vine is native to the Old World, originating on native plants in Japan. It was at one time erroneously held that this disease, like Black Rot and Downy Mildew, or...
-Powdery Mildew, Caused By Uncinula Necator (Schw.) Burr. Continued
In the late summer and autumn perithecia begin to appear among the hyphse. At first they are yellowish, but they soon turn black. They are numerous, more than one hundred thousand having been counted ...
-Anthracnose, Caused By Glceosporium Ampelophagum Sacc
Grape anthracnose, or bird's-eye Rot, is widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains, where at times it is of considerable importance. It was first discovered in central Illinois about 1881 and lat...
-Grape Crown Gall, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend
This is the same disease which occurs on the peach, apple and other plants, a list of which appears on page 108. It is called Crown Gall, crown knot, root-tumor and Black Knot (Fig. 66). Certain varie...
-Grape Dead Arm, Caused By Cryptosporella Viticola (Reddick) Shear
Dead Arm, or side arm, is found on nearly all commercial varieties of grapes in the eastern states, although it is rare on the Delaware variety. The Pocklington, although not extensively grown, is app...
-Grape White Rot, Caused By Coniothyrium Diplodiella (Speg.) Sacc
It is probable that the pathogene causing White Rot is native to America, although it was first found in Italy about 1878. In 1885 it was observed in France, and in 1887 considerable alarm was aroused...
-Shelling Cause Somewhat Obscure
Grape - growers in certain parts of America have known this trouble for at least fifty years. It has been reported especially from Connecticut, central and western New York, and Michigan. What appears...
-Grape Ripe Rot, Caused By Glomerella Cingulata (Stoneman) Sp. And Von S
This disease is sometimes called anthracnose, but it should not be confused with the anthracnose disease discussed on page 249. The name Bitter Rot is also used to designate this trouble, although Rip...
-Brunissure Cause Not Definitely Determined
Brunissure is a name taken from the French which means a browning. The term refers to the effects on the foliage. The first manifestation of the disease is the appearance of irregular brownish spots o...
-California Vine disease, Cause Unknown
Although this disease occurs in Italy, chief damage has been wrought in California. At one time it was the most serious of the several vine diseases in that state. It first appeared there in 1884, as ...
-Chapter X. Peach Diseases
The peach, although fairly well acclimated in the United States, is by no means exempt from fungous, bacterial and other troubles. It is a matter of common knowledge that the peach tree is short - liv...
-Peach Brown Rot, Caused By Sclerotinia Cinerea (Bon.) Schrot
This disease, which is called Brown Rot of stone-fruits, mold, blossom blight, twig blight, peach Rot, Brown Rot canker and other names, was not given serious consideration in America prior to 1881. I...
-Peach Leaf Curl, Caused By Exoascus Deformans (Berk.) Fckl
It is evident that this disease has long been associated with the peach, this fruit-tree being a natural host for the causal organism. Furthermore the disease is distinctly one affecting the peach and...
-Peach Yellows, Cause Not Known
Wherever this disease occurs it is known as yellows, or peach yellows. It is primarily a trouble of the peach and nectarine, although it has been observed on almonds, apricots and Japanese plums. Seed...
-Little Peach, Cause Not Known
Like peach yellows this disease is confined to the northeastern United States. It has been known for but a few years in this country. The origin of little peach is unknown, but the suggestion has been...
-Rosette Cause Not Established
The rosette disease affects many kinds of peaches, both budded fruit and seedlings. Probably the same disease occurs on many varieties of plums and almonds. The disease was first described as a proba...
-Peach Scab, Caused By Cladosporium Carpophilum Thiim
This disease, known as peach scab, freckles and Black Spot, was first described in lower Austria in 1876. Since then it has been known commonly in the United States, and it occurs to an injurious exte...
-Peach Crown Gall, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend
Although regarded as harmful wherever it occurs, the best authorities have raised the question whether real injury results from Crown Gall. Its progress is slow, and cases are on record where trees af...
-Peach Die Back, Caused By Valsa Leucostoma Fr. Var. Cincta Rolfs
The first important notice of this disease in the United States dates back about fifteen years. It is a condition more or less common to cherry and peach - trees in old neglected orchards, particularl...
-Peach Gummosis, Caused By Various Factors
The term gummosis, gum-flow, is here used broadly to indicate a sign of disease or injury rather than any specific disease. Like other stone-fruits the peach is subject to a gumming from trunk and bra...
-Peach Black Spot, Caused By Bacterium Pruni E. F. Smith
This peach trouble is known only in the eastern and central United States; so far it has not been reported in any other region of the globe. Not only is its range limited but its history is rather bri...
-Peach Coryneum Blight, Caused By Coryneum Beijerinckii Oudem
The disease here discussed is known commonly as California peach blight, blight, shot-hole, Fruit Spot, and sometimes as brown spot, pustular spot and winter blight. The earliest record of it comes fr...
-Peach Powdery Mildew, Caused By Sphcerotheca Pannosa (Fries) Lev. Var. Persicce Woronichine
It was formerly believed that the peach and rose mildews were the same, but recently it has been shown that the two are not absolutely identical. The peach Powdery Mildew probably occurs also on the n...
-Peach Rust, Caused By Puccinia Pruni - Spinosce Pers
This rust disease, due to Puccinia Pruni-spinosce, occurs on practically all the stone-fruits, but in the United States it affects chiefly the plum. Certain stages in the development of the rust fungu...
-Peach Silver Leaf, Caused By Stereum Purpureum Fries
While this disease affects primarily the plum and apple, many other fruit-trees and shrubs are liable to it. The peach is sometimes victim to Silver Leaf, but it never suffers so generally and so exte...
-Peach Frosty Mildew, Caused By Cercosporella Persicce Sace
In the central Atlantic states there occurs a peculiar disease of peach-leaves. It is more common from Maryland southward, being found in North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia and Arkansas. It also ...
-Peach Stem Canker, Caused By Phoma Persicce Sacc
In 1896 a peculiar stem-trouble was noted in Ohio affecting primarily nursery-stock and the twigs of older orchard trees. Two years later it was described, and was called constriction disease, or stem...
-Chapter XI. Pear Diseases
The most injurious diseases affecting the pear are Fire Blight (page 323) and scab (page 332). Fire Blight is commonly found on the apple and quince, and on these three fruits great damage may be wrou...
-Pear Fire Blight, Caused By Bacillus Amylovorus (Burr.) Trev
This disease is known to affect several fruit - trees and a few ornamentals belonging to the apple family. The discussion presented here concerns only the pear. All varieties of the pear are more or ...
-Pear Fire Blight, Caused By Bacillus Amylovorus Trev. Continued
From the blossoms the bacteria work their way down the pedicel to the spur, killing the bark and causing the leaves as well as the blossoms to wither. The leaf-tissues are not usually invaded. From th...
-Pear Scab, Caused By Venturia Pyrina Aderh
Although apple- and pear scab are very similar in all respects, they are not the same disease. The general opinion prevails among growers that because pear scab looks like apple scab, and because the ...
-Pear Pink Rot, Caused By Cephalothecium Roseum (Fries) Cda
This is one of the most common of the storage rots of the pear. It also occurs while the fruit is still on the tree. Where found it may be seen on examination that the Pink Rot patho-gene, Cephalothec...
-Pear Mycosphaerella Leaf Spot, Caused By Mycosphcerella Sentina (Ft.) Schrot
The pear leaf disease here discussed is better known as Leaf Spot, Septoria Leaf Spot and ashy Leaf Spot. It was first described in the United States in 1897. During that and the succeeding year it wa...
-Pear Frost Injury, Caused By The Action Of Low Temperatures, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend Crown Gall, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend
At times pear trees are severely damaged by frost. The trees are often planted on low, rich soil, and from their location are more subject to cold. A difference in elevation of only a few feet may oft...
-Pear Eastern Rust, Caused By Gymnosporangium Globaum Farlow
Pear rusts occur generally throughout the world. In the United States two important rust diseases of pear exist, but fortunately for all concerned, the one is confined to the eastern part of the count...
-Pear Pacific Coast Rust, Caused By Gymnosporangium Libocedri (P. Henn.) Kern = G. Blasdaleanum (Diet. And Holw.) Kern
This is one of the recently recognized rusts of the pear family. The name Pacific Coast rust is used in contradistinction to eastern rust of pear (see page 341). The disease here considered was discov...
-Pear Leaf Blight, Caused By Fabrcea Maculata (Lev.) Atk
This disease, which has been called scald and Leaf Blight, is known in nearly all countries where the pear is grown. It is recorded from Germany, Sweden, Italy and France, and is especially common in ...
-Pear Ozonium Root Rot, Caused By Ozonium Omnivorum Shear
This root disease is confined to the South and Southwest, having been found particularly in Texas and New Mexico. Pears are frequently injured to a very appreciable extent. Affected trees usually show...
-Pear Sooty blotch And Fly Speck, Caused By Leptothyrium Pomi (Mont. And Fr.) Sacc
The pear fruit is sometimes affected by the sooty disease which occurs so commonly on the apple in a wet season. It is rarely troublesome to the pear - grower. (See Apple, page 104.) ...
-Pear Black Mold The Fungus Fumago Vagans Fries
The leaves, twigs and fruits of pears, apples and cherries are sometimes badly discolored by the growth of the fungus Fumago vagans in the honey dew secreted by lice. The fungus is dark and its develo...
-Pear Black Rot Canker, Caused By Physalospora Cydonioe Arnaud
The fruit, leaves and branches of the pear are attacked occasionally by the above-named fungus, and as a result a Black Rot, a Leaf Spot or a canker may be produced. Special reports of it have come fr...
-Pear Brown Rot, Caused By Sclerotinia Cinerea (Bon.) Schrot
Outbreaks of Brown Rot due to the above-named fungus are not at all common in America, although European growers encounter a similar trouble frequently. It is better known on the apple than on the pea...
-Pear Bitter Rot, Caused By Glomerella Cingulata (Stoneman) Sp. And Von S
Fortunately for the pear-grower Bitter Rot is never as common and destructive to the pear as to the apple. Whereas apple Bitter Rot ranks second in importance only to apple scab over the country as a ...
-Pear Red Leaf Cause Not Definitely Known
This peculiar and interesting disease has been observed in New York State during the past five or six years. There are no extensive data as to its preference for varieties, although it has been observ...
-Chapter XII. Plum Diseases
The plum furnishes food and habitation for several parasitic fungi and bacteria. It is also affected with other ills caused by frost and other factors not generally understood. Many of these diseases ...
-Plum Brown Rot, Caused By Sclerotinia Cinerea (Bon.) Schrot
No disease gives the commercial plum-grower so much trouble as Brown Rot. It occurs more or less every year, affects the ripe or ripening fruit, and destroys it absolutely (Fig. 99). It is equally ann...
-Plum Black Knot, Caused By Plowrightia Morbosa (Schw.) Sacc
The Black Knot, or plum-wart, is a conspicuous disease of the plum and cherry, affecting both the wild and cultivated forms. It appears that, on the whole, plums suffer more than cherries. It sometime...
-Plum Leaf Blight, Caused By Coccomyces Prunophorce Higgins
Leaf Blight, Leaf Spot, shot-hole and yellow leaf are all names referring to the disease under consideration. A very similar disease affects the cherry (see page 172). Among plums the European variet...
-Plum Die Back, Caused By Valsa Leucostoma Fr. Var. Rubescens Rolfs
This very common disease of stone - fruits, in particular, affects the plum, resulting in a dying back of the twigs and often in the formation of large cankers on larger limbs. See more detailed discu...
-Plum Gummosis Various Causal Factors
Like other stone-fruits the plum is subject to gum - flow when injured in any way. (See in this connection the discussion presented under Peach, page 303.) In the Pacific Northwest a Bacterial Gummos...
-Plum Black Spot, Caused By Bacterium Pruni E. F. Smith
This is a disease which occurs on the peach, apricot and nectarine as well as the plum, and which is known as Black Spot, shot-hole, bacterial Leaf Spot and bacterial - crack. Of all fruits affected, ...
-Plum Silver Leaf, Caused By Stereum Purpureum Fries
While this disease has not been observed with certainty on plums in the United States, it is known on apple, and its prevalence and destructive nature in Canada and elsewhere would seem to warrant an...
-Plum Pockets, Or Bladders, Caused By Exoascus Pruni Fckl
This disease has a very general geographical range in Europe and in portions of the United States. It has been reported from Michigan, Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota, Ohio, Colorado, New Jersey, Nor...
-Plum Rust, Caused By Puccinia Pruni - Spinosce Pers
On the leaves of many stone-fruits is produced a rust disease known as plum Leaf Rust, prune rust and rust of stone-fruit trees. The disease is widely distributed in North America, Europe and Asia, an...
-Plum Wilt, Caused By Lasiodiplodia Triflorce Higgins
Apparently this disease is very limited in its geographical range. Reports of it come from only three states, Georgia, North Carolina and Alabama. In this region, however, it is of considerable import...
-Plum Scab, Caused By Cladosporium Carpophilum Thum
Plum scab, the same as found on the peach, was observed several years ago on the plum in Iowa. Subsequent observations were made in Delaware, Michigan, Indiana and elsewhere in the United States. It i...
-Plum Rosette, Cause Not Known
This disease is better known on the peach. Many varieties of plums are said to exhibit the rosette disease, including budded trees and seedlings, cultivated and wild varieties. It has been noted parti...
-Plum Yellows, Cause Unknown
This trouble is characterized by the production of wiry yellow shoots as in peach yellows. The disease is supposedly identical on both the plum and peach, but is by far the more common on the latter. ...
-Little Plum, Cause Unknown
This disease is better known as a peach trouble, but it is said to be quite as common to plums as to peaches in some parts of Canada. Japanese plums are more liable to show the disease than European v...
-Plum Crown Gall, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend
Bacterial galls occur on the crown and roots of the plum as in the case of other fruit - trees. These enlargements are less common on this host than on the apple and peach. See Apple, page 108. ...
-Plum Powdery Mildew, Caused By Podosphcera Oxyacanthce (Fries) De Bary
Sometimes Powdery Mildew affects the plum much like it does the cherry, but it is far less common and of no economic importance. See Cherry and Apple, pages 177 and 113. Armillaria Root Rot, Caused...
-Plum Fike Blight, Caused By Bacillus Amylovorus (Burr.) Trev
This is the disease which is so common on pears, apples and quinces in North America. Plums may be regarded as a minor and an occasional host; they are rarely affected. Apparently Fire Blight was not ...
-Chapter XIII. Quince Diseases
The quince is almost always attended by one or two prominent diseases, such as Fire Blight and Leaf Blight. These two troubles are perhaps the only ones in the United States which should arouse anxiet...
-Quince Fire Blight, Caused By Bacillus Amylovorus (Burr.) Trev
Fire Blight on the quince (Fig. 112) is no less prevalent than Leaf Blight, and it is probable that the former ranks as the most important of quince diseases. It affects orchard trees commonly, and in...
-Quince Leaf Blight, Caused By Fabrcea Maculata (Lev.) Atk
This disease occurs also on the pear, to a discussion of which the reader is referred for additional facts and data (page 347). On the quince the Leaf Blight disease is also called Black Spot, Fruit S...
-Quince Rust, Caused By Gymnosporangium Clavipes Cooke And Peck
Although the damage done by quince rust is not of great extent, nevertheless the disease has a general prevalence in the region from New England west to northern Michigan, and south to Florida. Outbre...
-Quince Fruit Spot, Caused By Phoma Pomi Passer. = Cylindrosporium Pomi Brooks
This disease was first noted on the quince in New Jersey in 1892. It was subsequently observed in New Hampshire in 1910 and in Connecticut in 1911. It is now common in New England and in the Middle At...
-Quince Black Rot, Caused By Physalospora Cydonice Arnaud
The disease which is discussed under Apple (page 45) occurs on all pomaceous fruits, including the quince. The trouble manifests itself on quince almost entirely on the fruit and is referred to as Bla...
-Quince Bitter Rot, Caused By Glomerella Cingulata (Stoneman) Sp. And Von S
Where this disease prevails it is quite destructive. However, its range and frequency are not sufficient to render it of an alarming nature. Quinces affected with Bitter Rot show symptoms very similar...
-Quince Brown Rot, Caused By Sclerotinia Cinerea (Bon.) Schrot
The decay of quince fruit caused by Sclerotinia cinerea is distributed generally over the globe. A closely related species of fungus (S. fructigena) very frequently attacks apples and pears as well as...
-Quince Crown Gall, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend
Galls in the form of small swellings occur on various portions of the limbs and twigs of quince trees. Often an entire limb is covered by the irregular, warty outgrowths. Crown Gall is the name applie...
-Chapter XIV. Raspberry Diseases
Not infrequently raspberry diseases have been factors in driving the bush-fruit growers out of the business. Crown Gall is very destructive to raspberries, although its injury to trees like the apple ...
-Raspberry Crown Gall, Caused By Bacterium Tumefaciens E. F. Smith And Townsend
Note should be taken of the fact that Crown Gall occurs on a great variety of plants (see list on page 112). In certain states, for example New York, the trouble affects the raspberry more commonly th...
-Raspberry Orange Rust, Caused By Gymnoconia Interstitialis (Schl.) Lag
This is a well - known raspberry and blackberry disease over the eastern United States and southern Canada. It also occurs as far south as Florida and California. The disease is found in Europe and As...
-Raspberry Yellows, Cause Unknown
This peculiar and obscure raspberry disease is variously known as curl, Leaf Curl, yellows and the Marlboro disease. The term yellows is used to cover a variety of symptoms and is very loosely applied...
-Raspberry Anthracnose, Caused By Gloeosporium Venetum Speg
The disease under consideration is generally known as anthracnose, which name was given it in 1887. Prior to that date it was called cane rust. The first account of the disease comes from Illinois dat...
-Raspberry Cane Blight, Caused By Leptosphceria Coniothyrium (Fckl.) Sacc
This disease was first observed in 1899 in the Hudson Valley, State of New York. Until that time it was wholly unknown to science, although it was then abundant and destructive. Later reports indicat...
-Raspberry Leaf Spot, Caused By Septoria Rubi Westd
This disease is less troublesome on raspberries than on blackberries and dewberries. It has been reported from several eastern and middle western states, but no cases of severe injury are recorded. T...
-Raspberry Blue Stem, Caused By Acrostolagmus Caulophagus Lawrence
This is a raspberry and blackberry disease peculiar to the Pacific Northwest. It has been increasingly troublesome in the Puget Sound region since 1904. All blackcap varieties of raspberries are susce...
-Raspberry Spur Blight, Caused By Mycosphcerella Rubina (Pk.) Jacz
This disease has been reported only from Colorado and New York. It probably occurs elsewhere. Both black and red varieties of raspberries are affected. In Colorado it is regarded as a very important t...
-Chapter XV. Strawberry Diseases
Strawberry-growing is often handicapped by pests of one sort or another. Among these the Leaf Spot and Powdery Mildew, and at times the Botrytis Rot, are important. Growers of strawberries do not rely...
-Strawberry Leaf Spot, Caused By Mycosphoerella Fragarics (Schweinitz) Lindau
Perhaps the most common of strawberry diseases is the Leaf Spot. It is also called spot disease, sun-burn, sun-scald, Leaf Blight, and, erroneously, strawberry rust. These names will recall to the min...
-Strawberry Powdery Mildew, Caused By Sphcerotheca Humuli (Fries) Burr
Strawberry Powdery Mildew was first reported from England in 1854, at which time it was of considerable importance. In 1885 it again became noticeable in England. The next year it was found in America...
-Strawberry Botrytis Rot, Caused By Botrytis Sp
This disease is especially common and destructive in rainy seasons. It appears to have an extensive range over the country, occurring as far south as Louisiana and throughout the northern strawberry -...
-Chapter XVI. Fungicides, Their Preparation And Application
Most fungous diseases of fruits and fruit-trees are more or less profitably controlled by the application of external protective substances known collectively as fungicides. The essentials of a good f...
-Types Of Fungicides
The fungicides used on fruits are of two general types, depending on the active principle in each: the copper fungicides and the sulfur fungicides. Although there are a number of kinds of each, bordea...
-Formulae For Preparation Bordeaux Mixture
The standard formula for use on fruit is usually a 5-5-50 or a 3-3-50 mixture, that is, 5 pounds quick-lime, 5 pounds copper-sulfate crystals, and 50 gallons of water; or if a weaker solution is desir...
-Copper Sulfate
This salt alone may be used only in very dilute solutions on foliage and fruit, and as a summer spray has but few uses. As a disinfectant for dormant peach trees it may be used as strong as necessary ...
-Lime Sulfur Solution
The fungicidal value of lime sulfur was discovered in America about 1880 when California peach-growers using it on dormant trees for the San Jose scale found that it controlled the Leaf Curl. As a mat...
-Self-boiled Lime Sulfur
This fungicide is not a boiled solution, as might be inferred from the name. It is in reality a mixture of lime and sulfur resulting from the violent action of slaking lime in the presence of finely d...
-Sulfur Dust
Sulfur for dusting purposes must be especially fine. Finely ground sulfur-flour is preferable. Powdered arsenate of lead in the proportion of ten pounds to ninety pounds of sulfur should generally be ...
-Iron Sulfate
This salt has of itself little value as a fungicide, but added to lime sulfur solution forms an iron-sulfide. It reduces the burning qualities and increases the adhesiveness of lime sulfur. It appears...
-Application Of Fungicides
Fungicides, to be effective, must be properly applied. There are two important factors never to be neglected. They may be designated as timeliness and thoroughness. Having determined on the proper ki...









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