Fruit stocks may be worked with either buds or grafts. Buds are far the best economically, but if a bud inserted in summer fails a graft may be put on in the following spring. Dwarfing stocks are best budded about 4 inches above the ground, stocks for standards 6 or 8 inches. The work is generally done in July or August. If the first month is very dry the budder frequently waits till the latter, in the hope that friendly rains may encourage a free flow of sap, which facilitates the raising of the bark. The old T cut - a horizontal cut across the face of the stock, and an upward perpendicular cut to intersect it - is the best. By working the flattened tip of the knife handle into the perpendicular cut in the direction of the horizontal one the bark is raised, and space afforded for the bud. A beginner who has a few Roses should practise on them first, as they give valuable practice for the similar, but rather more difficult, task of fruit budding. Make the fruit bud quite 2 inches long, for a "tail" of bark is very useful: it can be gripped between the fingers and drawn down, thus causing the pith to rise sufficiently to be caught hold of with the finger and thumb and worked out. Until this pith can be extracted without dragging out the small green growing germ at the base the practice must go on. The most suitable Apple or other wood from which to make buds is vigorous, healthy wood of the current year's growth. Take such a shoot, press the blade of the knife into the wood about 1 inch above a leaf, turn it, and draw the blade horizontally along the shoot beneath the leaf, bringing it out about 1 inch below. Cut off the leaf, leaving 1/2 inch of stem to hold the bud by; turn it cut face upwards, and remove the pith as already described. If the bud is somewhat too long for the T, it is easy to shorten the upper part. Make a neat fit, and then tie the bud in with raffia, folding it evenly over from top to bottom. The buds must always be kept moist; if dry they will not take. If there is much rain in late summer there may be a rapid union and considerable swelling, in which case the binding material must be loosened. In any case I believe in removing it in autumn, so as to permit of the buds becoming hardened. When growth starts freely in the spring, cut off the head of the stock 3 or 4 inches above the bud. The stump ("snag") is left simply to tie the young growth to until it is established, and may come out in autumn. The tree is now no longer a stock, but an Apple or Pear, and has to be trained; see previous chapters.