Of course, whip grafting is not suitable for large trees, but here we get away from the question of stocks and the turning of them into fruit trees, and come to a different one - that of changing a variety. Probably this is of greater interest to most fruit growers than the other; certainly there are many who have unsuitable sorts or unhealthy trees, and who would like to improve them by grafting. All such work may be done in April, but the good grower frequently begins before, first by taking off the shoots for scion making, and laying them in a moist, cool, shady place until wanted; and, secondly, by heading back the old trees and clearing the branches away, thus facilitating the actual operation when the proper time comes. He has then only to saw off 1 inch or 2 inches to get fresh wood, and he is ready to graft. (Fig. 25.)
A, bush tree: a, stock; b, stem of existing variety; c, c, c, branches.
By pyramid: d, stock; e, existing variety; f side branches; g, leading branch.
C, fan: ft, stock; i, stem of existing variety; j, branches.
D, espalier: k, stock; l, stem of existing variety; m, lower tier of branches; n, second tier; o, central growth.
E, standard with cankered branches: p, stem; q, branches; r, cankered limbs removed; s, point of shortening when the branches are cankered near the stem.
In choosing varieties for re-grafting unsatisfactory trees, select strong growers, such as:-
Tower of Glammis.