If the bud has not taken in spring, the stock must be cut down to be grafted. Clear away the top hamper, make an upward sloping cut about 1 inch long on the stump, and a downward cut inch long in the face of the first cut. It is now ready for whip grafting. Have some shoots about as thick as a lead pencil of the variety to be increased at hand, cut them into lengths of about 4 inches, make two cuts corresponding to the stock on the lower portion, and fit the two together. Tie securely, and wax or clay to exclude air. When care is taken that one edge each of stock and scion are in union (both cannot be if they are of unequal sizes) failures are few. (Fig. 23 and Fig. 24.)
C, stock with first cut: j, point of starting cut; k, tissue exposed.
D, scion with first cut: l, shoulder to fit top of stock.
E, stock with second cut: m, cut; n, tongue thus formed; o, opening for scion.
F, scion with second cut: p, cut; q, tongue; r, opening for stock; s, scion shortened, three buds left.
G, stock and scion fitted together.
H, after tying and claying; u, ligature; v, section of clay. (Grafting wax may be used instead of clay.)
In whip grafting it is very important to make even, sloping cuts and secure a proper fit. One edge of bark and one of scion should be in contact.
A, base of scion properly cut: a, bark; b, wood; c, pith; d, outer bark; e, inner bark; f cambium (growing part); g, alburnum.
B, bad fitting: h, stock; i, scion. Observe that owing to the scion being much smaller than the stock the white edges of the latter are not in contact.
C, bud fitting: j, stock; k, scion over edge of stock.
E. bad cutting: o, a rounded instead of an even surface.
K, good fitting: w, stock; x, scion, outer edges of stock and scion in contact.