The Blossom Weevil (Anthonomus Pomorum)

The weevil bores a hole in a closed bud and lays an egg; the maggot feeds on the bud and turns to a chrysalis there. (1) Open out the trees and encourage the rapid opening of the buds. (2) Remove and burn all loose strips of bark in winter, then limewash. (3) The sticky bands referred to under Winter Moth will probably stop some of the female moths. (4) Spray or syringe when the trees are in bud with No. 3.

The Sawfly (Tenthredo Testndinea)

The caterpillar resulting from this fly is light brown, having three pairs of claw and seven of sucker feet, 1/2 inch long. Eggs are laid in the blossoms in May, and holes eaten in the fruit by the caterpillars, which emerge and enter the ground when the fruit falls. (1) Spread lime on the surface soil, and lightly fork it in. (2) Destroy all worthless fallen fruit. (3) Apply the Paris Green spray No. 3, before the fruit turns down in spring.

The Winter Moth (Cheimatobia Brumata)

Eggs are laid on the stems, about the spurs, and at the points of the young shoots. Caterpillars hatch with the mild weather of spring, and feed on the breaking buds. (1) The application of sticky bands is becoming unpopular, yet it has something to recommend it. In one small orchard I counted, one mid-December day, thirty of the greyish spidery female moths captive, and there were plenty more left when I got tired of counting. The following rules should be observed: To get paper that is greaseproof; to use fairly deep bands, say 9 to 12 inches; to tie with two strings, one at the top and one at the bottom; and to prepare a grease that, on the one hand, does not run, and, on the other, does not dry quickly and set. I have had successful results from sheets of butter paper purchased for a copper or two at the grocer's, and dressed with cart grease partially liquefied with palm oil. All these articles are easy to get and very cheap. Do not let the middle of November pass before the bands are put on. (2) The Paris Green solution, No. 3, may be sprayed on in spring. Take care to mix the stuff thoroughly, and to put it on in a fine, dew-like shower. (3) Pruning after Christmas results in many eggs being destroyed, and where convenient this cutting should be practised. In many cases labour considerations, I am aware, prevent the practice, which, however, is good.

Fig. 58. Sticky banding fruit trees to check winter moth.
Fig. 58. Sticky Banding Fruit Trees To Check Winter Moth

References

A, full (6 feet) standard Apple tree, stem double banded: a, butt of tree, or junction of stem with soil, sometimes called collar; b, lower band of proof paper, secured near lower and upper edges with string, c; the whole surface smeared with axle grease or cart grease to fix wingless moths and other climbing insects; d, upper band; e, base of head or radiation of branches from stem.

B, United Stales and Canadian moth guard affixed on stem of orchard tree: f, cord to fix guard round stem; g, strong linen or sacking sewn to cord; h, girdle of tin with a wide rim turned up inside, to which linen or sacking is secured.

Codlin Moth (Carpocapsapomonella)

Visits to many orchards (not, alas, excepting my own) convince me that this is far the worst enemy which has had to be dealt with during the past few years. I have seen hundreds of pounds' worth of fruit destroyed by it. In most instances the grower looked on, complaining, but doing nothing. The mischief is done by a small caterpillar, whitish, with brown head, hairy, having three pairs of claw and five of sucker feet, which results from an egg laid in the eye of the fruit late in spring. On hatching, the grub eats its way into the fruit, which eventually falls. (1) Remove and burn loose bark in winter; (2) limewash, or scrub with "soaparite,"; (3) rigorously destroy all worthless fruit as it falls. Usually it is left lying, which is bad. (4) Spray with Paris Green, No. 3, as previously recommended, before the setting fruit turns down. The grub then dies as it feeds.

Small Ermine Moth (Hyponomeuta Malivorella)

Although this is not an everyday pest, a wrecked orchard I saw in the Midlands taught me what it can do if allowed to have its way. The caterpillar, which is ash coloured and spotted with black, appears in spring from eggs laid in patches and gummed to the twigs. It and its companions live in web tents among the leaves. (1) Brush away and destroy the webs at first sight, so saving future trouble; (2) give the trees a vigorous shaking, and destroy any fallen caterpillars.

The Lackey Moth (Bomfoyx Neustria)

The caterpillars of this moth, which I have found on Pears as well as on Apples, result from eggs laid in rings round the young shoots and attached by a dark, pitchlike substance. They sport a variety of gay colours, and live in large webs, or may be seen swinging by their threads. (1) Speaking from experience, much the best way of dealing with the Lackey is to look out for the egg patches at pruning time, cut off the twigs, and burn them. As a rule, a great number are not found in each tree, and consequently the labour is not great. When, however, it is remembered that each patch may yield a large number of caterpillars it is seen that the work is worth doing. (2) An old broom intelligently wielded facilitates the removal of many swinging caterpillars.

Fig. 59. The Lackey Moth And Caterpillar, Showing Eggs On Twigs
Fig. 59. The Lackey Moth And Caterpillar, Showing Eggs On Twigs