Here we have another formal type of tree, secured by the skilful manipulation of the yearling. A maiden tree may be cut hard back. If possible, it should be headed to a point where there are three buds not far apart, one of them on the front of the main stem. A front bud gives a shoot which goes up in a truer line with the lower portion of what is to be the main stem than a side bud. One of the three buds is to continue the leader, and the other two are to form the lower pair of side branches. If one of these extends at the expense of the other, which is weak, endeavour to redress the balance by depressing the stronger (depression checks the flow of sap and steadies the growth) and raising the weaker. When the leader has extended about 1 foot it may be stopped again, if possible, at a point where three buds cluster near each other, and material for another tier of branches thus secured. In good soil a pair of tiers may be secured in one season. I have known more under very favourable circumstances.

It is not advisable to tie the side shoots down to the horizontal position which they are to assume ultimately (see g in Fig. 5) while they are in an early stage of development; it will suffice to do that in the winter following their formation, or even in the second year. Under ordinary circumstances, an espalier tree with five or six tiers of branches 10 inches to

1 foot apart is large enough for most gardens. On a wall, an espalier may be trained with twenty or more tiers; it is merely a question of space.

The side branches may be summer and winter pruned, the same as cordons.