This class of tree is not suitable for small gardens, but in orchards, where the trees are wanted to give large quantities of fruit, and they can be given a space between each pair of 20 or 30 feet, they are good. Standards and half-standards, the former on clean stems 6 feet, and the latter 3 feet, in height, of Apples, Plums, and Cherries are still being planted extensively in Kent, also in the Midlands and the West. In forming young trees, it is wise to shorten the shoots two-thirds their length the first season, and one-third the second season; then a tree with a, good foundation is secured (see Fig. 7).
A, a yearling or maiden Apple, tree which has not branched, but has good buds all along the stem: a, stock; b, growth from bud inserted in previous year.
B, a two years old Apple tree: c, continuation of growth from terminal, bud of preceding year's stem; d, laterals or side shoots from previous season's stem; e, shortening point of leading growth, called "heading," at desired height of stem, the side shoots being cut off close to the stem to throw all the vigour of the tree into the uppermost buds.
C, head of three years old Apple tree: f, shoots retained to form head; g, points at which growths have been rubbed off; h, points of first winter pruning to cause branches to force and push buds below for forming spurs.
D, four years old standard Apple tree: i, stem; point of "heading"; k, places of first winter pruning: l, branches or limbs with spurs (short stubby growths, terminated by a hold bud and smaller side buds): m, points of second winter pruning if leading growths long; n, non-shortening of leading shoots if not long, as they naturally fork as indicated by dotted lines; o, side shoots to be cut to one or two buds of base to form spurs.