Although the cherimoya has up to the present suffered little from the attacks of insect and other pests in California and Florida, it is far from being exempt from them in regions where it has been grown extensively for a long period. In Hawaii, Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockerell is a serious enemy. Several other coccids have also been reported on the cherimoya, Aulacaspis miranda Cockerell and Ceropute yuccoe Coquillet are two which are mentioned from Mexico. Certain of the fruit-flies (Trypetidse) are known to attack the fruits of the cherimoya. Throughout the warmer parts of America there are small chalcid flies, related to the wheat-joint worm and the grape-seed chalcid, which infest the seeds of annonaceous fruits. Bephrata cubensis Ashm. has been reported as attacking the cherimoya in Cuba. These insects are serious pests. In Argentina the attacks of borers are said to reduce the life of the average tree by half, making it thirty in place of sixty years.