According to modern Omani etymologists, the name means The Separated, because of the way the dates are arranged in the bunch; but the ancients, who are entitled to more credit, spell it in a way that means The Apportioned.

Ghars. - Form oblong to obovate, narrowest near the rounded apex; size large to very large, length 1 1/2 to 2 inches, breadth about 7/8 inch; surface somewhat shining, bay colored; skin soft and tender; flesh 3/8 inch thick, soft, sirupy, slightly translucent; flavor sweet and rich; seed oblong, 3/4 to 1 inch long, with the ventral channel deep and sometimes closed near the middle, and the germ-pore at center. Season early.

Syns. Rhars, R'ars. One of the commonest soft dates in North Africa, esteemed for its earliness in ripening, its productiveness, and the ability of the plant to resist large amounts of alkali and much neglect. In California it has proved to be a strong grower, but the fruit is not so good as that of several other varieties, and also ferments easily. The name means Vigorous Grower.

Halawi. - Form slender-oblong to oblong-ovate, broadly pointed or blunt at the apex; size large, length 1 1/4 to 1 3/4 inches, breadth about 3/4 inch; surface slightly rough, translucent bright golden-brown in color; skin thin but rather tough; flesh 1/8 to 3/16 inch thick, firm, golden-amber in color, tender; flavor sweet and honey-like, but not rich; seed slender oblong, 7/8 inch long, with the ventral channel broadly open. Ripens midseason.

This is the great commercial date of Mesopotamia, and probably the most important variety in the world, as regards quantity sold. It is grown chiefly around Basrah, at the head of the Persian Gulf. It has good keeping and shipping qualities, but is not esteemed by the Arabs for eating; in American markets, however, it is preferred to several other varieties because of its attractive color. Both in California and in Arizona Halawi has succeeded remarkably well. The name means The Sweet.

Hayani. - Form oblong-elliptic, broadest slightly below the center and rounded at the apex; size very large, length 2 to 2 1/2 inches, breadth 1 to 1 1/4 inches; surface dark brown in color, smooth; skin thick, separating readily from the flesh; flesh about 1/4 inch thick, light brown in color, soft; flavor sweet, lacking richness; seed oblong, sometimes narrowed toward the apex, 1 1/4 to 1 3/8 inches long, with the ventral channel broad and deep, and the germ-pore usually 3/8 inch from the base. Ripens midseason.

Syns. Hayany, Birket al Hajji, Birket el Haggi, Birket el Hadji, and Birkawi. One of the most satisfactory Egyptian dates in California and Arizona. It is precocious and prolific, and has proved to be more frost-resistant than many other varieties. The plant is unusually ornamental in appearance. The variety is named after the village of Hayan.

Kasbeh. - Form oblong-ovate, widest near the base and broadly pointed at the apex; size large, about 1 3/4 inches long, 3/4 inch broad; surface golden-brown to chestnut in color; skin thin but fairly tough; flesh 3/16 inch thick, firm, but never hard, tender; flavor sweet, slightly heavy but not cloying; seed oblong-elliptic, almost an inch long, the ventral channel open and deep, the germ-pore nearer base than apex. Season late.

Syns. Kesba, Kessebi, El Kseba. A variety of ancient origin, extensively cultivated in Algeria and Tunisia. Before Deglet Nur came into the field it was considered the finest date in North Africa. It is valued in California, where it has been found to have excellent keeping and shipping qualities as well as good flavor. The name means The Profitable.

Khadhrawi. - Form oblong to oblong-elliptic, widest near the center and broadly pointed at the apex; size medium to large, length 1 1/4 to 1 3/4 inches, breadth 3/4 to 7/8 inch; surface translucent orange-brown in color, overspread with a thin blue-gray bloom; skin firm, rather tough; flesh, 3/16 to 1/4 inch thick, firm, translucent, amber-brown in color; flavor rich, never cloying; seed oblong-obovate to oblong-elliptic, 7/8 inch long, the ventral channel narrow or almost closed. Ripens midseason.

Syns. Khadrawi, Khudrawee. One of the most important commercial varieties of Mesopotamia, ranking second only to Halawi. It is a better date than the latter, but not so highly esteemed on the American market because of its slightly darker color. In California it has been grown with great success. The name means The Verdant.

Khalaseh. - Form oblong to oblong-ovate, broadest near the center and rounded to broadly pointed at the apex; size medium, length 1 3/8 to 1 5/8 inches, breadth 3/4 to 7/8 inch; surface smooth, orange-brown to reddish amber in color, with a satiny sheen; skin firm, but tender; flesh 1/4 inch thick, firm, tender, reddish amber in color, free from fiber; flavor delicate, with the characteristic date taste in a desirable degree; seed oblong-elliptic, pointed at both ends, 3/4 to 7/8 inch long, the ventral channel almost closed. Ripens midseason.

Syns. Khalasa, Khalasi, Khalas. The most famous date of the Persian Gulf region, and unquestionably one of the finest in the world. It is grown principally at Hofhuf in the district of Hasa; a few palms have been planted in the United States, and have produced fruit of superior quality. Khalaseh likes a dry situation and sandy soil. It is not a heavy bearer, but is precocious. The name means Quintessence.

Khustawi. - Form oblong-oval, broadest near center and rounded at apex; size small to medium, length 1 to \\ inches, breadth 3/4 to 7/8 inch; surface smooth, glossy, translucent orange-brown in color; skin thin and delicate; flesh \ inch thick, soft and delicate in texture, translucent golden-brown in color; flavor unusually rich yet not cloying, with the characteristic date taste in a desirable degree; seed oblong-obovate, 3/4 inch long, pointed at both ends, with the ventral channel open. Ripens midseason.

Syns. Khastawi, Kustawi, originally Khastawani (Persian). A delicious dessert date from Baghdad. It has proved well adapted to conditions in the date-growing regions of America. It is not a heavy bearer, but the fruit possesses good keeping qualities. The name means The Date of the Grandees.

Majhul. - Form broadly oblong to oblong-ovate, broadest at center to slightly nearer base and broadly pointed at apex; size very large, length 2 inches, breadth 1 1/4 inches; surface wrinkled, deep reddish brown in color; skin thin and tender; flesh 3/8 inch thick, firm, meaty, brownish amber in color, translucent, with no fiber around seed; flavor rich and delicious; seed elliptic, l 1/4 inches long, with the germ-pore nearest the base and the ventral channel almost closed. Season late.

Syns. Medjool, Medjeheul. A variety of large size and good keeping qualities, from the Tafilalet oases in the Moroccan Sahara, whence the fruit is exported to Europe. Probably suited only to the hottest and driest regions in the United States. The name means Unknown.

Maktum. - Form broadly oblong to oblong-obovate, usually broadest near center and rounded at the apex; size medium, length 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches, breadth to 1 inch; surface somewhat glossy, translucent golden-brown in color; skin firm, wrinkled, rather thin; flesh 3/8 to 5/8 inch thick, soft, almost melting, light golden-brown in color; flavor mild, sweet, similar to that of Deglet Nur. Season late.

Syn. Maktoom, originally Makdum. A rare variety from Mesopotamia which has proved admirably adapted to conditions in California, although not resistant to frost. It is large and of fine quality. The palm is a vigorous grower. The name means The Bitten.

Manakhir. - Form oblong, rounded at the apex; size very large, length 2 to 2 1/4 inches, breadth slightly more than 1 inch; surface smooth, brownish maroon in color, with a purplish bloom ; skin thin and tender; flesh 1/4 inch thick, soft and melting, with fiber around the seed; flavor delicate, resembling that of Deglet Nur; seed oblong, 1 inch long, with the germ-pore nearer the base and the ventral channel frequently closed. Season late.

Syns. Menakher, Monakhir. A rare and large-fruited variety from Tunis, of which only a few palms exist in the United States. In this country it is not a date of the best quality. The name means The Nose Date.

Saidi. - Form oblong-ovate, broadest near the base and blunt at the apex; size large, length 1 1/2 inches, breadth about 1 inch; surface almost smooth, brownish maroon in color, overspread with a bluish bloom; skin thin, tender; flesh 3/16 inch thick, red-brown in color, firm; flavor very sweet, almost cloying; seed oblong-elliptic, 7/8 inch long, the germ-pore slightly nearer the base and the ventral channel almost closed. Ripens in midseason.

Syns. Saidy, Wahi. One of the most important varieties of Upper Egypt. It is not considered so good in quality as some of the Algerian and Mesopotamian varieties, but it is a heavy bearer, though it requires a hot climate to ripen perfectly. The name indicates that it comes from Said or Upper Egypt.

Tabirzal. - Form broadly oblong-obovate, broadest below center and broadly pointed at the apex; size medium, length 1 1/8 to 1 1/2 inches, breadth 7/8 to 1 1/8 inches; surface translucent deep orange-brown in color, with a blue-gray bloom ; skin thin and tender, coarsely wrinkled; flesh J inch thick, soft and tender, translucent orange-brown in color; flavor distinctive, mild and pleasant, sweet but not cloying; seed broadly oblong, 5/8 to 3/8 inch long, with the ventral channel narrow. Season late.

One of the best dates grown at Baghdad. In the United States it is little known as yet. Originally Tabirzad (Persian) meaning Sugar Candy.

Thuri. - Form oblong, broadest near center and bluntly pointed at apex; size large, length 1 3/4 inches, breadth 3/4 inch; surface reddish chestnut color, overspread with a bluish bloom; skin thin; flesh 3/16 inch thick, firm and nearly dry but not hard or brittle, golden-brown in color; flavor sweet, nutty and delicate; seed oblong, 1 inch long, the ventral channel deep and partly closed, the germ-pore nearer the base. A midseason date.

Syns. Thoory, Tsuri. One of the best Algerian dry dates. It is large, not too hard, and of excellent flavor; the palm bears heavily and the clusters are of exceptional size. In California it has proved very satisfactory. The name means The Bull's Date.

Zahidi. - Form oblong-obovate, broadest near the rounded apex; size medium, length 1 1/4 inches, breadth 7/8 inch; surface smooth, glossy, translucent golden-yellow in color, sometimes golden-brown; skin rather thick and tough; flesh 1/4 inch thick, translucent golden-yellow close to the skin, whitish near the seed, soft, meaty, and full of sirup; flavor sweet, sugary, and not at all cloying; seed oblong, 3/4 inch long, the ventral channel open. Season early.

Syns. Zehedi, Zadie, originally Azadi (Persian). A remarkable date, the principal commercial variety of Baghdad. It can be used as a soft date (as described above) or as a dry date, depending on the length of time it is allowed to remain on the palm. The tree is vigorous, hardy, resistant to drought, and prolific in fruiting. The name means Nobility.