Assuming this method of cultivation is adopted for the purpose of supplying blooms in winter, the transplantation to the frames should be carried out in September. Plants cultivated as already described are suitable at that time for putting into the frames, being good big specimens 8 or 10 inches across. Before planting can be done, however, the frames must be prepared; therefore let us turn our attention to these. The character of the frames will depend upon the resources of the garden, but in any case they should have a south aspect. The amateur will often have to prepare an improvised or temporary frame with sunken boards and lights placed over them, whilst in many other cases proper brick frames will be available. In either case it is best not to use fire heat, for of all plants none is more sensitive to its ill effects than the Sweet Violet. What little heat is employed must be got from fermenting materials. First, then, there must be placed in the frame a bed of stable litter and leaves; this must be at least one foot deep, and more if it is possible. The materials should be prepared for this purpose some time previously by turning them every alternate day, and allowing the volatile gases to escape from the litter. Having formed the bed, and made it firm by treading, a layer of soil about 6 inches deep must be placed over it. The soil may consist of pasture turf of a rich loamy nature, rather than sandy, and it should have been in stack for 12 months. Some thoroughly decayed and dried cow-manure should be mixed with it, or failing this some decomposed manure from a spent hotbed; but fresh horse-manure should not be employed. Some good leaf-mould from decayed oak leaves will -have an excellent effect, if the soil is inclined to be of a heavy nature. Where good loam cannot be got the amateur must make up his compost of old potting soil, decayed vegetable refuse, and such materials. The lighter the compost, the more necessary it is to add cow-manure. The frame and its contents should be so arranged that when all is completed, and the Violets are planted in the bed, the leaves of the plants will be 2, or at most 3 inches from the glass, thus getting full exposure to the light.
When all is ready the cultivator will proceed to the out-of-door plantation and lift the best of his plants for putting into the frame. He must do this work very carefully, in order to avoid giving the plants a greater check than is necessary. They must be lifted with big balls of roots and soil and conveyed, without much shaking, to the frame. In this they should be planted at such distances that they will not quite touch each other, but at the same time nicely furnish the frame. When all have been planted, afford them a thorough watering to settle the roots, and afterwards keep the frame closed for a few days until the plants begin to make roots, but no longer. This little proviso is insisted upon, for Violets must have fresh air or perish. Therefore, so soon as they have become re-established, admit air to the frame whenever the state of the weather will permit of this being done, and continue this practice all through the winter, removing the sash lights altogether during fine, warm days. Keep the glass as clean as possible, for dirty glass is an obstruction to light. During exceptional frost a few garden mats may be thrown over the frames early in the afternoon, removing them again the next morning. Fog is the greatest deterrent to Violet culture in frames. It causes the leaves to damp off, and in severe cases suffices to kill the plants outright. This is one reason why Violets cannot be forced successfully in the neighbourhood of large towns, the other reason being that the amount of light is insufficient to meet the requirements of the plants. In crowded manufacturing districts it is not worth the effort to attempt their cultivation. There are plenty of places, however, where they will succeed well; but although it is not desired to discourage the beginner, it has to be pointed out that careful attention to details is necessary to preserve the plants from Red Spider and the various fungus diseases to which they are subject. These pests will be referred to presently; for the moment the cultivator should further note that the chief requirements during winter and spring, beyond the operations of watering and ventilating, will consist in stirring the surface soil frequently, and observing the most scrupulous cleanliness in removing any decayed foliage from the Violets. Such is the management of the plants whilst in the frame. If these details are faithfully carried out the result will be plenty of large, sweetly perfumed flowers, borne on long, stiff stems, equal to the best Violets obtainable. In April, or at the latest in May, the work of propagating will commence afresh, and it should be carried out in the manner described already. The youngest and best of the crowns should be planted on a north or north-west border, and be kept free from runners until the following September, by which time another batch of excellent plants will be ready for the freshly-prepared frames.