Pansy and Viola flowers are so frequently visited by insects that they never produce seed true to variety if grown in mixed beds or in proximity to other varieties. It is nevertheless the case that seeds can be purchased which come fairly true to colour. These are produced by planting large batches of one variety in isolated positions. Intending purchasers are often disappointed when they are told by the nurseryman or seedsman that they cannot have seeds of special varieties, say of fine Fancy Pansies. The nurseryman could gather seeds from such varieties, but they would not come true. There is no other method of propagation than by cuttings to perpetuate distinct varieties true to character. The raising of new varieties is a very interesting pursuit, and it can be carried out by any amateur. If a mixed bed of Pansies is being grown, seeds should only be saved from the very choicest varieties. If, in the case of Violas, a new white variety, for example, is desired, a few plants of two or three of the best white varieties obtainable should be planted in an isolated corner of the garden, and seeds saved from them. Both Pansies and Violas are visited by bees, moths, beetles, and flies, either in search of nectar, which is to be found in the spur behind the lower petal, or to feed on the pollen which drops out of the anthers into the hairy groove formed where the spur joins the petal. Making these visitations, the insects carry pollen from one flower to the other, and the lip-like arrangement on the point of the stigma lends itself admirably to cross-fertilisation. The lip is viscid on the upper side, and pollen brought by an insect from a previously visited flower easily adheres to it. It is possible, of course, to fertilise by hand, but to obtain satisfactory results plants must be grown in pots and protected from insect visitors at the crucial time by screens of fine netting. The blooms require to be emasculated at a very early stage - an operation of extreme delicacy. If insects are excluded and hand fertilisation is not practised, few, if any, seeds will be ob tained. This points to another method of cross-fertilisation which has been successfully adopted. The blooms are secured in an upright position to short sticks at an early stage of their development. Held in this position, and insects being excluded, they cannot become either cross or self pollinated except by hand. If the desired pollen is carefully applied to the viscid lip of the stigma at the right time, a true cross is obtained without emasculation. Raisers are working for new colours and improved habits, and there is plenty of room for improvement in these directions.