Some of the terms used in connection with Roses refer to the habit of the plant, others to the section into which it has been placed, and others, again, to the stock on which it has been "worked" (i.e. budded or grafted).
The terms almost explain themselves. Thus, a "standard" Rose is a Rose worked on to the top shoots of a tall, clean stem. A dwarf is a Rose worked close to the ground, the branches forming a low bush. A climbing Rose is a Rose of strong, rambling habit. It is not a true climber, like Ampelopsis Veitchii, because it does not throw out growths, the special mission of which is to attach themselves to a wall, as that popular plant does, but the term will serve. A weeping Rose is a Rose so influenced by pruning as to turn its branches towards the ground. All these types are shown in figures in this book.
Garden and exhibition Roses have been classified into various sections for convenience. They are descendants of various specie's of the great genus Rosa, which belongs to the important natural order of the Rosaceae. Some of these species are grown under garden names. Thus in Rosa bracteata we have the Macartney Rose, in Rosa canina the Dog Rose, in Rosa centifolia the Cabbage Rose, in Rosa centifolia muscosa the Moss Rose, in Rosa damascena (held by many botanists to be a hybrid between Rosa canina and Rosa gallica. but kept up as a good species by Kew) the damask Rose, in Rosa indica the China or Monthly Rose, in Rosa indica borbonica the Bourbon Rose, in Rosa lutea the Austrian Brier, in Rosa repens hybrid a the Ayrshire Rose, in Rosa rubiginosa the Sweet Brier or Eglantine, in Rose rugosa the Japanese Rose, in Rosa sempervirens the Evergreen Rose, and so on. In addition to these, however, there are the great sections Hybrid Perpetuals, Teas, Hybrid Teas, and Noisettes, (a) Hybrid Perpetual Roses are varieties resulting from the intercrossing of hybrids of Chinese and Bourbon with Rosa damascena hybrids. The exact order is not known. They should bloom twice a year, in early summer and in autumn. (b) Tea Roses are so called because of their tea scent. They bear the general name of Rosa indica odorata. They are more truly perpetual than the Hybrid Perpetuals, inasmuch as they bloom continuously under good culture. For the most part the flowers are smaller and more symmetrical than the Hybrid Perpetuals, while there is a preponderance of light colours. Varieties with the deep, glowing colours of the Hybrid Perpetuals are rare. (c) Hybrid Teas are for the most part an entirely modern race of cross-breds. They are increasing in numbers and popularity. (d) Noisettes have descended from a hybrid between Rosa indica and Rosa moschata. They bear their flowers in bunches as a rule. These are the principal sections.
Roses are sometimes spoken of as (1) "Manettis," or "on the Manetti"; (2) "seedling Briers," or "on the seedling Brier"; (3) "cutting Briers," or "on the cutting Brier"; (4) "Grifferaies," or "on the Grifferaie"; (5) "own-root." The first four terms indicate the stocks on to which the Roses are worked. A "Manetti Rose" is a Rose worked on to a Manetti stock (see Fig. 5) This stock, which was raised by Signor Manetti, of the Botanic Gardens, Milan, is not quite so popular as it was soon after its introduction some 60 years ago. Most Roses take well on it, but it is not lasting. Brier stocks are extensively used, especially for Teas. Where standards are wanted, Briers are taken out of the hedges in autumn (see Fig. 8). For dwarfs, it is customary to work on cultivated stocks, raised either from seeds (see Fig 7) or cuttings (see Fig. 6). The De la Grifferaie stock (see Fig. 5) is growing in favour on account of its hardiness and vigour. Most climbers do well on it, particularly Maréchal Niel.
Stocks sometimes overgrow the Roses they ought to support. Foliage with seven, nine, or more leaflets is probably Manetti or Brier, not Rose.
"Own-root" Roses are trees raised from cuttings of their own wood.
The terms "maiden" and "cutback" are also used in connection with Roses. They may apply to any class of stock, because a "maiden" Rose is simply a one year old plant, and a "cutback" a tree which has passed its first year and been pruned.
With this preliminary explanation, and the illustrations which accompany it, the way is cleared for a chat about propagation.