A, section of a heavy, deep loam, or loam resting on clay. Soil before preparation: a, top soil and turf; b, second spit; c, subsoil, heavier, and generally too stubborn for working readily when brought to the surface; d, clayey stratum with stones. Soil after preparation: e, 3-inch tile or pipe drain, which must communicate with a main of the general land drainage, or itself have a proper fall and outlet; f, subsoil broken up with a fork, and one-fourth of horse manure worked in; g, turf (top 2 or 3 inches); h, second spit soil; i, top spit soil, to which is added one-fourth of decayed horse manure.
B, section of a heavy clay soil. Before preparation: j, top spit; k, subsoil of stiff, heavy clay; l, solid clay with or without stones. Bed after preparation: m, 3-inch drain with proper fall and outlet; n, second spit soil broken up, with one-fourth of rather fresh stable manure and a similar proportion of sand or road scrapings (not ashes) added; o, top spit soil on which a dressing of quicklime has been spread some time previously at the rate of 1 cwt. per rod. If the surface of the ground be in Grass, this may be pared off and placed on the broken up bottom soil.