C, section of gravelly soil. Soil before preparation: p, top spit, relatively free from stones, of free-working loam; q, second spit, coarser than the top soil, and more compact, yet admitting of the free percolation of water; r, gravel with some reddish loam interspersed. Prepared bed: s, undisturbed bottom, no drainage being required; t, second spit, mixed with about one-fourth each of clay and half-decayed farmyard or cow manure; u, top soil turned upside down, an addition of old turf from a clay soil, decayed cow manure, and old mortar rubbish being made.
D, section of sandy soil. Soil before preparation: v, top spit with vegetation; w, very sandy second spit; x, sand. Prepared bod: y, clay, clayey marl, or chalk on which is placed turf from the surface; z, prepared soil.
E, section of a prepared slope: a, natural stral a of clay, stones, and other stubborn material, the face being made uneven; b, drain running at the base of the natural slope, with an outlet to the main land drain; c, good soil on which to plant the Roses.