F, section of very heavy clay soil. Soil before preparation: d, very strong loam verging into clay surfaced by turf or sward; e, yellowish clay; f, clay and stones. Preparing bed: g, 3-inch drain attached to a land drain; h, drainage of stones or broken bricks, laid edgewise, with very small stones or rubble on the top, and on this thin sods face downwards; i, second spit soil, one-half of which has been burned, then mixed with one-fourth of fresh horse droppings or stable manure; j, top spit soil, to which has been added quicklime, at the rate of 1 cwt. per rod, left for a time to become mild before being mixed with the soil, then one-fourth of stable manure added.
G, section of mound formed on heavy land, where, from its position, it cannot be more than shallow drained: k, clay from which the surface layer of soil has been removed; 1, rubble, roughest at the bottom and finest at the top. with drains at the sides, in fact all round the base; m, drains; n, soil mixed with manure; o, prepared soil.