H, section of very sandy soil and prepared bed. Soil before preparation: p, surface soil with turf and not more than 2 or 3 inches of dark vegetable mould; q, sand. Prepared bed: r, clay; s, top spit mixed with one-third of well pulverised clay; t, prepared soil - rather strong loam with one-fourth of stable manure added, or, if of a light nature, old cow manure.
I, section of chalky soil and prepared bed. Soil before preparation: u, thin surfacing of soil with herbage; v, chalk. Prepared bed: w, prepared soil.
J, section of bank: x, natural clayey strata; y, rubble on the face of the natural formation for drainage, thus preventing the swamping of prepared soil by water from higher ground; z, drain at the base of the incline, which must be connected with the land drain, or itself have a proper fall and outlet; a, prepared soil.