A, a one year old dwarf Hybrid Perpetual lifted and prepared for planting: a, shoot from the central eye of the bud inserted in the previous season (sometimes the only growth); b, shoots from the buds at the sides of the central one (not always present); c, junction of stock and scion; d, strong downward root, usually termed the tap root, from the base of the stock; e, the side roots; f, points where roots have been damaged in lifting, packing, transit, or careless unpacking; g, point of shortening the tap root to cause it to produce roots laterally; h, points of shortening the side roots in order to cause fibres to push near the stem.
B, the plant A a year older, showing the result of cutting back the strong roots. Fibrous roots have been thrown out and a healthy root system has been established. The roots are shown somewhat above the natural size for clearness.
C, section of hole in a prepared bed: i, bed of prepared soil; j, ex cavation 12 to 18 inches wide, circular, and 10 inches in depth; k, soil taken out; l, the layer, about 1 inch thick, of thoroughly rotted manure placed at the bottom of the hole and covered with a little fine soil.