H, a one year old Hybrid Perpetual from a cutting, the shoots of which have been shortened to about 12 inches: v, a strong root which has taken a straight down direction; w, roots which have taken a more or less horizontal direction, x, a root which issued from the base of a shoot; y, dormant buds which will ultimately start when the shoots above ground are close pruned; z, a shoot produced from a bud below the ground; a, shoots made from buds above the ground; b, depth at which the cutting was inserted.
I, a one year old tree on its own roots, showing the roots shortened and spread out laterally, the descending roots having been bent from a vertical to a horizontal inclination without breaking: c, the soil trenched and manured; d, a layer of decayed manure covered with good soil; e, soil made quite firm under, amongst, and over the roots; f, a mulching of short manure; g, shoots shortened after planting to prevent displacement by wind.
J, the tree planted with the roots intact: h, a straight down root carefully brought by a gentle bend to a horizontal direction; i, side roots spread out horizontally; j, a root from the base of a shoot spread out near the surface; k, soil; l, soil with which the hole is filled; m, a mulching of short manure.
K, a standard properly planted in the centre of a 2 feet wide circle on a lawn: n, prepared soil; o, a thin layer of manure covered with a little fine soil; p, hole; q, mulching; r, the stake to which the stem is secured; s, grass. [N.B. - A pillar Rose is planted similarly.]
L, planting against arch: t, subsoil broken up and manure added; u, ground trenched and manured in a half-circle not less than 2 feet 6 inches wide and 2 feet deep; v, a Rose with its roots spread out near the surface; w, turf replaced; x, opening left free from turf not less than 1 foot clear from the stem in a half-circle and mulched with short manure; y, gravel path; z, portion of arch.