Fig. 24. First Stages Of Pruning The Rose Marechal Niel

D, a one-stemmed plant at the first pruning: k, the point of shortening to induce vigorous growths to push in the following spring for forming the basal rods; l, the upper part of the plant, which in the previous season was allowed to make all the growth possible; m, the wall front of a lean-to, or the side of a span-roofed house; n, the hot water pipes; o, the wall plate; p, the light; q, the eave of the house.

E, a plant in the second year after planting: r, the stem, from which all the growths have been removed except the two most promising; s, vigorous shoots which are allowed to make all the growth possible during the summer, training them to the right and left of the stem (as shown) so as to have them 2 feet apart when taken upright; t, the point of the wall plate; u, the position of the eave; v, the point of shortening the growths at the winter pruning.