A, a one year old plant: a, leading growth; b, side growths; c, point of shortening to originate vigorous shoots from the base.
B, a two years old plant with three strong shoots: d, points of shortening the shoots to induce vigorous growths for covering the wall or trellis, if there is plenty of space all ways; e, points of shortening the shoots for forming an erect growing plant if there is more space upwards than sidewise.
C, a plant which has resulted from shortening the vigorous shoots B to d: f, leading growth; g, side shoots; h, growths not allowed to extend beyond five or six joints, unless they are flowering shoots, they being pinched and laterals stopped to one or two joints; i, point of shortening the leading growth; j, points of shortening the side shoots, only the immature points in both cases being removed; k, branch bent down to cause the buds on young wood to break evenly, applicable to all young shoots.
D, plant C a year older: l, continuation growth from stem; m, con tinuation growths of side branches; n, side shoots from previous year's shoots which flowered, or were not allowed to extend beyond five or six joints; o, two years old side growths, called spurs. Pruning is confined to shortening the leading shoot of the stem and the continuation growths of the side branches to firm, thoroughly ripened wood, indicated by the cross lines; p, growths that may be allowed to extend for filling bare space.
E, an upright trained plant (B e a year older): q, continuation growths; r, side shoots; s, points of shortening the leading growths; t, points of pruning the side shoots.
F, an upright trained plant (E a year older): u, continuation shoots from branches: v, one year old side shoots; w, two years old side branches or spurs; the pruning being indicated by cross lines.