A, short or spur pruning: a, shoot shortened to three buds, not counting the basal bud, or the small ones at the side of the shoot where it issues from the previous year's wood; b, basal bud - there is usually a corresponding one opposite.
B, intermediate pruning, the shoot being almost twice as long as in short pruning: c, point of shortening to 8 inches; d, point of shortening to 10 inches; e, basal bud.
C, long pruning, the shoot left as long as there is space for developing side or bloom growths. All the thoroughly ripened wood is retained, only the immature portion being cut off: f, point of shortening, the part left for blooming being in this instance 15 inches, or nearly twice as long as in intermediate pruning, and five times longer than in the short pruning; g, point of shortening to basal buds.
D, a branch spur pruned: h, points of shortening the stem, the numerals signifying the age of the wood in years; i, terminal growth, very weak, to be cut off at the cross line; j, uppermost side growth which has flowered and pushed a continuation shoot. This, shortened to a bud on firm, ripe wood and the flowered growths cut off close (both indicated by cross bars) is suitable for training as a continuation of the stem, as indicated by the dotted line; vigorous side growths from one year old wood which flowered well at both the first and second blooming - the bars indicate the points of pruning. The uppermost left hand branch in this connection has made a strong second growth shoot, which may be pruned as indicated by the dotted cross lines, and trained in as a leader where growths are desired; l, stunted, weak growth, simply a flower shoot cut off close to the stem; m, a vigorous shoot which started in consequence of the first flowered growth having been cut off to within a bud of the stem - the pruning is indicated by the cross lines; n, two years old spurs, the shoots of which have bloomed well - the bars indicate the points of priming; o, three years old spur properly pruned.
E, bush of Gloire de Dijon on the long-branch, once-flowered system of pruning: p, one year old, long, vigorous shoots with merely their immature points shortened back to thoroughly ripened wood; q, two years old branches that have produced an abundance of fine blooms, and are cut clean out at the following winter pruning.
F, tree of Gloire de Dijon on the long-pruning and flowered-branch-cut-out system: r, point of first shortening a strong, well matured shoot; s, point of shortening a vigorous growth which was taken forward in the previous year as a continuation of the branch; t, point of shortening strong shoots which were allowed to grow from the base of the stem in the previous season; u, continuation growths or one year old shoots taken forward from the respective branches, marked for shortening; v, a vigorous growth which was allowed to proceed from the base of a flowered three years old branch and intended to displace it in the following summer, marked for shortening; w, one year old or last-year-flowered shoots; x, two years old growths or spurs; y, one year old flowered shoots spur pruned; z, laterals, to be cut off close to the shoot.