E, maiden, planted and cut down: k, point of shortening to the ground in the spring after planting; l, vigorous growths developing in summer.
F, two years old plant which has not produced strong and long shoots for pegging down in the first season: m, points of cutting close in so as to induce vigorous shoots to push in the following summer; n, shoots developing as a result of cutting back to two buds.
G, three years old plant (F a year older) with shoots pegged down and young growths developing from their base: o, strong and long shoots of the previous year shortened and pegged down; p, vigorous growths issuing from their base.
H, a pegged-down, long-pruned Rose showing that the object is to cover the space evenly with vigorous flowering growths: q, continuation shoots; r, growths left long for filling up space; s, shoots spur pruned because space does not permit of long pruning being adopted in their case.
I, a fully formed, long-pruned, pegged-down Rose after pruning: t, main branches; u, subsidiary branches left at the previous pruning to fill up the space; v, basal growths always reserved so that a worn-out branch can be cut clean out and replaced by a young, vigorous shoot.