G, a tree at the third winter pruning after planting: o, point of cutting down a one shoot plant in spring after planting, and only one shoot retained in the following summer; p, point of shortening the shoot produced in the preceding summer; q, flowered shoots; r, young shoots for furnishing the space evenly. In this case the flowered branches are shown shortened to within about two buds of their base, this being advisable where there is a great deficiency of young shoots from the bottom of the stem and along it. Where there is a fair supply of young wood it is not advisable to prune very closely, but to leave about three good buds, as shown in the flowered shoot at s. With plenty of young shoots the best plan is to cut all the flowered shoots off close to the stem and shorten this to the first young shoot.
H, a tree on the low pillar or stake system: t, point of cutting down a one shoot plant to originate strong growths. Three or four usually result, but only two are retained, the others being cut back to a bud or two, as it is always advisable to have dormant buds at the collar of the plant; u, point of shortening the two strong shoots, always to well matured, dormant wood buds; v, flowered branches; w, points of cutting them away either in the first or second winter after flowering; x, points of spurring if retarded a second year; y, young shoots encouraged from the base for flowering another season; z, points of shortening.