A, growth completely fastened together by the threads and overspread by the web of the caterpillars from which develops the Small Ermine Moth, Hyponomeuta padella, as found on the Dog Rose in spring, two-thirds natural size: a, web, forming a so-called web-nest in which the caterpillars lurk and eat, destroying the young growths, then migrating to other shoots, and so on until full fed; b, caterpillar, a great number of which passed out of the web-nest while being sketched.
B, an attack by caterpillars that live between leaflets united by threads of silk, and when disturbed let themselves to the ground by a silken cord. They often fold the leaves over the flower bud and injure, if not destroy, it. Amongst these enemies are the caterpillars of the Geometer Moth, Cidaria fulvata; and the Winter Moth, Cheimatobia brumata, also many species of Tortricina, such as Lozoenia Rosana, Croesia Bergmanniana, and Peronea variegana: c, leaves folded over the bud; d, infested flower bud; e, folded leaflet; f, suspended caterpillar.
C, a leaf infested by Rose Slugs, the larvae of the Rose Slug Sawfly, Eriocampa Rosae: g, Rose Slugs; h, patches where the upper skin of the leaflet has been eaten away, the affected leaves turning brown, and the whole tree, in bad cases, having a scorched appearance.
D, an attack by the Rose Leaf Sawfly, Hylotoma Rosae: i, caterpillar undis turbed; j, attitude of caterpillars when disturbed.
E, an attack by the caterpillars of the Sawflies Blennocampa pusilla and Emphytus cinctus: k. the work of Blennocampa pusilla, the larvae turning up or down the sides of the leaflets and living protected in these retreats; l, injury caused by Emphytus cinctus, the larvae of which feed on the edges of the leaflets, and when at rest live curled up in a ball on the lower surface of the leaflets; m, larva of Stem-borer Sawfly, Paecilosoma candidatum, which bores into the pith of growing shoots of Roses in May and June, causing the leaves to wither.
F, an attack of Rose Caddice Fly, Lyda inanita: n, folded leaves; o, tubular sack formed of fragments of Rose leaves arranged spirally, in which the larva lives; p, larva or caterpillar.