A, a young plant from the open. Section of pot: a, drainage; b, soil; c, space for water. Plant: d, roots shortened, because strong, long, and bare, in order to encourage fibres; e, point of cutting back the first growth from the bud to three buds; f, the leading or central shoot cut back to three buds to secure three shoots, one to be trained upright as a leader, and the other two opposite the vacancy of the lower shoots; g, side shoots shortened to two buds each; h, the first growth of the previous summer, usually flowering; i, second growths from which flower buds have been nipped.
B, the plant A a year older, showing shifting into a larger pot and pruning: j, drainage; k,_rough soil; l, soil; m, space for water; n, ball of soil and roots, the sides loosened and crocks and loose soil removed; o, point of shortening the leader; p, points of shortening the side shoots; q, shoots which flowered in the previous summer; r, second growths not allowed to bloom, but the flower buds pinched off when quite small.
C, the plant B a year older in bloom, the lower growths being tied down and the others secured to stakes so as to form a symmetrical head and display the flowers to the best advantage.