A, growing shoot: a, b, buds; c, bud removed; d, bud with pith; e, com mencing to remove the pith; f, bud ready.
B, stock: g, transverse out; h, longitudinal cut; i, bud inserted.
A, current year's shoot: a, tip, too soft; b, middle, good if ripe and firm; c, better still, may be taken with a heel (d) of older wood (e).
B, branch with side growths f and g, the latter taken off with a heel - both will do; too stumpy.
A, a, b, c, cuttings; d, soil.