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A Research On The Eucalypts Especially In Regard To Their Essential Oils | by Richard T. Baker, Henry G. Smith



The continual applications received by us, during the last few years, for further data concerning the physical and chemical properties and commercial possibilities of the oil products of the Eucalypts-than those given in the first edition, which has now been out of print for some time-were the chief incentives which moved us to place our latest researches on these wonderful trees into the present book form.

TitleA Research On The Eucalypts Especially In Regard To Their Essential Oils
AuthorRichard T. Baker, Henry G. Smith
PublisherAuthority of The Government Of The State Of New South Wales
Year1920
Copyright1920, Authority of The Government Of The State Of New South Wales
AmazonA Research On The Eucalypts And Their Essential Oils
A Research On The Eucalypts Especially In Regard To Their Essential Oils

Department Of Education.

New South Wales.

Minister:

The Honourable Thomas Davies Mutch, M.L.A.

Under Secretary:

Peter Board, Esq., M.A., C.M.G.

Superintendent Of Technical Education:

James Nangle, Esq., F.R.A.S., O.B.E.

The Technological Museum. Sydney

The Technological Museum. Sydney.

Technical Education Series No. 24.

Department of Education.

A Research On The Eucalypts Especially In Regard T 3

Technical Education Branch.

Technological Museum, New South Wales

[2nd Edition.]

By Richard T. Baker, Curator and Economic Botanist. Technological Museum, Sydney. Lecturer on Forestry. Sydney University.

And Henry G. Smith, F.C.S., Assistant Curator and Economic Chemist. Technological Museum. Sydney. Joint Authors of " Pines of Australia," etc.

Published by Authority of The Government Of The State Of New South Wales.

William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer-1920.

-Preface
The continual applications received by us, during the last few years, for further data concerning the physical and chemical properties and commercial possibilities of the oil products of the Eucalypts...
-Acknowledgments
A work of this character, the preparation of which has now extended over many years, and covers such a wide range, has necessarily caused us to solicit the help of others residing in the various Austr...
-Part I. Introductory. The Genus Eucalyptus. Natural Order Myrtaceaa
This Genus was first named Aromadendron by Dr. William Anderson, the surgeon of Captain Cook's second and third expeditions, when collecting with Captain Furneaux in Tasmania, where Hobart now stands....
-Comparative Constancy of Specific Characters of Eucalyptus Species
The reputed or supposed great variation of individual Eucalyptus species has arisen probably by the attempts of botanists to found species on morphological characters alone ; and Bentham, when working...
-Comparative Constancy of Specific Characters of Eucalyptus Species. Part 2
The comparative constancy of specific characters, morphological and chemical, such as the constituents of the oils, dyes, tans, etc, amongst the Eucalypts is perhaps only what one might expect to fin...
-Comparative Constancy of Specific Characters of Eucalyptus Species. Part 3
The oil of E. hemiphloia, in the work on Volatile Oils, by Gildemeister and Hoffmann, published by Messrs. Schimmel & Co., is stated to contain cineol and a large amount of cuminic aldehyde (now sh...
-Hybridisation
This very fascinating question has occupied the attention of modern botanists to some extent, and we also have given some thought to the subject, but so far without any measure of success. On seriousl...
-Nomenclature
When the first edition of this work was published in 1902 it-was decided to subordinate the vernacular names to the scientific, as it was found that no uniformity of results were obtainable if the ver...
-Geographical Distribution
The scheme of evolution of the Eucalypts formulated in the following article is further supported by following out the geographical distribution of the species. Thus on the assumption that those Euca...
-The Probable Evolution of the Eucalypts
Perhaps one of the most interesting results brought to light by what appears to us the natural system of classification here adopted, is the affinity shown to exist between the members of the several ...
-The Probable Evolution of the Eucalypts. Part 2
(a) Those yielding oils consisting largely of the terpene pinene; either dextro-rotatory or laevo-rotatory. (b) Those yielding oils containing varying amounts of pinene and cineol, but in which phell...
-The Probable Evolution of the Eucalypts. Part 3
In other parts of this work we show that this alteration in leaf venation and chemical constituents is not local in its incidence, and that the specific characters of each species are practically cons...
-Part II. Botany, And Chemistry Of The Essential Oils Of The Species
The Sequence of the Species is based on both Botanical and Chemical Results Eucalyptus Species Investigated GROUP 1. Eucalyptus calophylla 2 E. diversicolor ...
-Group I
In this Group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil consisting 1 largely of Pinene, without phellandrene. Cineol is almost or quite absent. I. Eucalyptuscalophylla. 2...
-1. Eucalyptus calophylla
(R.Br., in Journal Geographical Soc., 1831, 20. Schau., in Pl. Preiss., i, 131.) Red Gum Systematic. One of the largest trees of Western Australia, with a rough bark, shortly fibred, and irregularly...
-2. Eucalyptus diversicolor
(F.v.M., in Frag, iii, 131, 1863.) Karri. Systematic. -This tree is the largest in Australia, even attaining a height of 400 feet, and thus exceeding any other Eucalyptus on the Continent. The bark m...
-3. Eucalyptus tesselaris
(F.v.M., in Jour. Linn. Soc, iii, 88.) Moreton Bay Ash or Carbeen. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a persistent, tesselated bark on the lower trunk, branches smooth. Leaves thin and narrow, lanceolat...
-4. Eucalyptus trachyphloia
(F.V.M., in Jour. Linn. Soc, iii, 90.) A Bloodwood. Systematic. A tall tree, with a pale-yellowish, laminated, tesselatecl bark, quite unlike that of any other New South Wales species of Fucalyptus. ...
-5. Eucalyptus terminalis
(F.v.M., in Jour. Linn. Soc, iii, 89.) A Bloodwood. Systematic. - A fair-sized tree, with a brick-red, flaky bark. Leaves lanceolate mostly under 4 inches long, light yellow in colour, coriaceous; in...
-6. Eucalyptus corymbosa
(Sm., in Bot. Nov. Holl. 43, and in Trans. Linn. Soc, iii, 287.) Bloodwood. Systematic. - A tree not easily confounded with other species. It grows very tall. Bark persistent, furrowed, of a reddish ...
-7. Eucalyptus Intermedia,
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 674.) A Blood-wood. Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, with a light-brown flaky bark. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, about 6 inches long, and 1 to 1 1/2 inch...
-8. Eucalyptus eximia
(Schau., in Walp., Rep., ii, 925.) White or Yellow Bloodwood. Systematic. - A good average forest tree, with a yellowish or lightish-coloured, flaky bark. Abnormal leaves large, measuring sometimes u...
-9. Eucalyptus botryoides
(Sm., in Trans. Linn. Soc, iii, 286.) Mahogany or Bangalay. Systematic. - In favourable situations a fine upstanding tree, but often gnarled. Leaves lanceolate, broad, and about 6 inches long, shinin...
-10. Eucalyptus robusta
(Sm., in Bot. Nov. Holl, pp. 39-40, t. 13.) Swamp Mahogany. Systemriic. - A fairly large tree, with reddish, brittle bark-between a Stringybark and a Bloodwood bark. Leaves large and coarse, lea...
-11. Eucalyptus saligna
(Sm., in Trans. Linn. Soc, iii, 285-partly). Sydney Blue Gum. Systematic. - A tall tree, growing to its greatest height and perfection in the gullies of the coast. Bark either smooth, bluish-white wi...
-12. Eucalyptus Saligna, var. pallidivalvis
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Euc. and their Ess. Oils, 1st Edit. 1902, p. 32.) Flooded Gum Systematic. - The herbarium material of this tree is altogether coarser than that of its allied species E. saligna....
-13. Eucalyptus nova-anglica
(H.I). & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1899, p. 616, P1. L.) Black Peppermint of New England, N.S.W. Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, with a dark straight bark, thinner than that of E. Bridgesia...
-14. Eucalyptus acaciceformis
(H.D. & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1899, p. 454.) Peppermint. Systematic. - A large umbrageous tree attaining several feet in diameter, with a Peppermint bark. Abnormal leaves alternate, pal...
-15. Eucalyptus Rydalensis, sp. nov
Swamp Gum Systematic. - A medium-sized tree reaching a height of 40-50 feet and a diameter of 18 inches; with a thick and spongy, rough decorticating bark, extending well up the tree. Abnormal leaves...
-16. Eucalyptus Carnea
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1906, p. 303). Systematic - A tall tree, attaining a height of 100 feet, with a dark-coloured, stringy bark, persistent to the branchlets. Abnormal leaves opposite, ...
-17. Eucalyptus dextropinea
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1898, p. 417, t. XI.) A Stringybark. Systematic. - A tree attaining a height of from 60 to 100 feet or higher, and a diameter up to 5 feet. Bark dark or black on the...
-18. Eucalyptus nigra
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 689.) Black Stringybark. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a black stringy bark. Abnormal leaves opposite or alternate, thin ovate, acuminate, shortly petiola...
-19. Eucalyptus Iævopinea
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1898, p. 414, t. X.) Silver-top Stringybark. Systematic. - A very tall tree in favourable situations. Bark fibrous, but brittle, a feature that distinguishes it from...
-20. Eucalyptus phlebophylla
(F.v.M. & MlQ., Ned. Kr. Arch., IV, 140.) Cabbage or Weeping Gum. Systematic. - A tree reaching 40 or 50 feet in height, with spreading limbs, weeping branches, and branchlets that hang down 10 or 12...
-21. Eucalyptus alpina
(Lindl. Mitch., Three Exp., II, 175, 1838.) Systematic. - A stunted tree or shrub ; branchlets stout, rugose. Normal leaves on thick petiole, from broad oblong lanceolate to roundish, thick, coriaceo...
-Group II
In this Group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil consisting principally of pinene and cineol; the latter constituent not exceeding 40 per cent., determined by the phosphoric acid metho...
-22. Eucalyptus Wilkinsoniana
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., p. 678, t. XLVI, fig. 2.) Small- leaved Stringybark. Systematic. - A medium-sized tree with a thin, compressed, not furrowed, stringy-bark. Leaves lanceolate, falcat...
-23. Eucalyptus eugenioides
(Sieb., in Pl. Exs.; p. 479, and Fl. Mixt, p. 603; DC. Prod., iii, 218.) White Stringybark. Systematic. - A tall tree. Bark thick, stringy, of a clean, reddish colour, or hoary on the external fibres...
-24. Eucalyptus umbra
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1901, p. 687, t. XLIV.) Stringybark, White Mahogany. Systematic. - A tall tree, attaining sometimes a height of 100 feet, with a dark-coloured stringy bark. Abnormal...
-25. Eucalyptus santalifolia
(F.v.M., in Trans. Vic. Inst., i, 35, 1855.) White Mallee. Systematic. - Tall shrub, bark greyish, smooth. Normal leaves scattered, thick, narrow, rarely broad, lanceolate, usually falcate, average a...
-26. Eucalyptus Blaxlandu
(J.H.M. & R.H.C., Roy. Soc., N.S.W., 1918, p. 495; Desc., in Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1905, p. 193, under E. capitellata.) Systematic. - A tree of medium size, bark not typically stringy, but incline...
-27. Eucalyptus microcorys
(F.v.M.. Frag, ii, 50.) Tallow-wood. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a pale-coloured flatish, broken bark, branchlets quadrangular. Abnormal leaves ovate, about 3 inches long, acuminate, membraneous,...
-28. Eucalyptus hemilampra
(F.v.M., Herb.; R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 669.) (Syn. E. resinifera, Sm. var. grandiflora, Benth., B.FL, iii, 246.), Mahogany Systematic. - A very tall tree, with a red, stringy bark...
-29. Eucalyptus corynocalyx
(F.v.M., in Fragm., ii. 43, 1860.) Systematic. - A large tree reaching in favourable situations a height of 120 feet, from 4 to 6 feet in diameter at the base, and as much as 60 feet to the first bra...
-30. Eucalyptus fasciculosa
(F.v.M., in Trans. Vic. Inst., 34, 1855.) White Gum. Systematic. - A small tree, seldom more than 30 feet in height, with a smooth bark. Abnormal leaves broad, nearly ovate. Normal leaves lanceolate,...
-31. Eucalyptus megacarpa
(F.v.M., Fragm., ii, 70.) Blue Gum. (The Blue Gum of Donnybrook, or the Bullich of the Jarrah Belt, W.A.) Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, bark smooch when fresh, but becoming rough on expo...
-32. Eucalyptus redunca
(Schau., in Lehmann's Plant. Preiss., 1, 127, 1844.) White Gum. Systematic. - A shrub or small tree preaching up to 120 feet, F.v.M., var. elata, Benth.), with a smooth white bark. Normal leaves ovat...
-33. Eucalyptus Lehmanni
(Preiss Herb., according to Schau., in Pl. Preiss, Vol. I, p. 127, 1845.) Systematic. - A tall shrub or small tree, with a roughish, reddish bark coming off in irregular sheets (Oldfield). Abnormal l...
-34. Eucalyptus leucoxylon
(F.v.M. with E. sideroxylon in Trans. Vic. Inst., I, 33, 1855.) White Gum Systematic.-A moderately sized tree seldom exceeding 20 to 30 feet, with a smooth bark. Bark deciduous, whilst in young tree...
-35. Eucalyptus rudis
(Endl., in Hueg. Enum., 49, 1837.) Systematic. - A moderate-sized tree, the bark rough, and persistent. Abnormal leaves ovate, petiolate; normal leaves lanceolate, often falcate, acuminate, about 4 i...
-36. Eucalyptus maculata
(Hooker, Ic. PL, t., 619.) Spotted Gum. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a long clean trunk. Bark smooth, somewhat shining, whitish or sometimes reddish-grey, mottled by bluish-white or brown-reddish ...
-37. Eucalyptus intertexta
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, 1900, p. 308, t. XVII.) Spotted Gum, Gum, Coolabah. Systematic.- A large tree, up to 80 feet high, and 3 feet or more in diameter. Bark smooth, nearly to the ground; butt-ba...
-38. Eucalyptus lactea
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 691, t. XLVI, fig. 5.) A Spotted Gum. Systematic. - A fair-sized tree, with a dirty, flaky bark, which is occasionally smooth. Abnormal leaves ovate, lanceo...
-39. Eucalyptus paludosa
(RT.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1898, p. 167, t. VI.) Yellow Gum, Swamp or Flooded Gum, Systematic. - A tree from 60 to 100 feet high, with a diameter from 2 to 3 feet. Bark brown at the butt, bluis...
-40. Eucalyptus Baeuerlenu
(F.v.M., in Vic. Nat. October, 1890, p. 76.) Brown Gum. Systematic. - A tree only known, so far, from the Sugar Loaf Mountain, Clyde-road, between Nelligen and Braidwood, occurring there on the very ...
-41. Eucalyptus viminalis, var. a
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Euc. and their Ess. Oils, 1st. Edit., 1902, p. 91.) Systematic. - A tree apparently similar in most morphological characters to the type. Fruit.- The fruits, however, are less p...
-42. Eucalyptus paniculata
(Sm., in Trans. Linn. Soc, III, 287.) White Ironbark. Systematic. Often a tall tree. Bark hard, compact, furrowed. Abnormal leaves broadly lanceolate, up to 7 inches long, up to 2 inches broad, pale ...
-43. Eucalyptus cornuta
(Labill., Voy. I, 403, t. 20, 1799.) Yate Gum. Systematic. - A tree of moderate size with a smooth bark on the upper branches, but dark and rugged lower down, approaching that of an Ironbark. Abnor...
-44. Eucalyptus quadrangulata
(H.D. & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1899, p. 451, t. XXXIX.) Grey Box Systematic. - A tree of 80 to 100 feet and diameter of 2 to 4 feet. Bark very much resembles that of ordinary Box, E. hem...
-45. Eucalyptus conica
(H.I), & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1899, p. 612, t. XLVIII, fig. 1-3.) A Box Systematic. - A tree of medium size, with pendulous branches. Bark of the ordinary Box character, persistent rig...
-46. Eucalyptus Bosistoana
(F.v.M., in the Australian Journ. Phar., Oct., 1895.) Ribbon Box. Systematic. - This tree was the Eucalyptus described by Baron von Mueller (1895), and has, therefore, only quite recently been botani...
-Group III. Class (a)
In this Group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil consisting principally of cineol and pinene, in which the cineol exceeds 40 per cent. at the time of distillation, but under 55 per cen...
-47. Eucalyptus polyanthemos
(Schau., in Walp. Rep., ii, 924, 1843.) Red Box. Systematic. - A fair-sized tree, with a persistent Box bark right out to the branchlets. Leaves oval, ovate-acuminate or emarginate to lanceolate, t...
-48. Eucalyptus Stuartiana
(F.v.M., in B.Fl, iii, 243.) Apple of Victoria. Systematic. - A large tree, with a red, stringy bark, and a reddish-coloured, worthless timber, similar to that of E. cinerea, F.v.M., and with glaucou...
-49. Eucalyptus Stuartiana, var. cordata
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Euc. and their Ess. Oils, 1st Edit., 1902.) (Syn. E, pulverulenta, var. lanceolata, A.W.H.) Systematic. - A small tree, 40 to 50 feet high, with a red, stringy bark. Leaves glauc...
-50. Eucalyptus bicolor
(A. Cunn., Hook., in Mitch. Trop. Austr. 390. Syn. E. pendula, A. Cunn., in Steud. Nom. Bot., Ed. 2: E. largiflorens, F.v.M., in Trans. Vict. Inst., i, 34, and Fragm., ii, 58). Red Box Systematic. -...
-51. Eucalyptus longifolia
(Link & Otto, Ic. Pl. Scl., 97, t. 45.) (Syn. E. Woollsii, F.v.M.) Woollybutt. Systematic. - Often a tall tree, with a persistent grey, fibrous bark. Leaves lanceolate, often measuring 12 inches in l...
-52. Eucalyptus Behriana
(F.v.M., in Trans. Vict. Inst., i, .34. 1854.) Systematic. - A small tree of the Mallee country. Branchlets terete. Bark thin, smooth, greenish, hard. Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate, oval, acuminat...
-53. Eucalyptus Rossii
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Euc. and their Ess. Oils, 1st Edit., 1902.) White Gum. Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, with a smooth, white bark. Leaves lanceolate, generally under 6 inches long, mostly narr...
-54. Eucalyptus salmonophloia
(F.v.M., in Fragm. xi, II, 1878.) Salmon-coloured Gum. Systematic. - A tree when aged, reaching 100 feet in height, the bark smooth, grey, and somewhat purplish, of an oily lustre. Abnormal leaves ov...
-55. Eucalyptus Seeana
(J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1904, p. 469.) (Syn. E. tereticornis Sm., var. linearis, R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Euc and their Ess. Oils, 1st Edit., 1902.) Systematic. - Abnormal leaves linear, lanceol...
-56. Eucalyptus rostrata, var. borealis
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Euc. and their Ess. Oils, 1st Edit., 1902.) River Red Gum. Systematic. - It has long been known by stockmen that cattle will eat the leaves of only one kind of River Gum (E. ro...
-57. Eucalyptus camphora
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 298, t. XXII.) Sallow or Swamp Gum. Systematic. - A small tree, about 20 to 40 feet high in northern specimens, but a fair sized tree in the south. Abnormal...
-58. Eucalyptus Maideni
(F.v.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1889, p. 1020, t. XXVIII and XXIX.) A Blue Gum Systematic. - Known as Blue Gum and Spotted Gum in different localities, and erroneously recorded as E. globulus ...
-59. Eucalyptus Rodwayi
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., Roy. Soc, Tas., 1912, p. 191, t. II.) Apple-Scented or Black Gum. Systematic. - A large forest tree; often 4 feet in diameter. Bark persistent on stem and branches. Abnormal leaves ...
-60. Eucalyptus cinerea
(F.v.M., in B. Fl., iii, p. 239.) Argyle Apple. Systematic. A picturesque tree, from 40 to 50 feet high., having a foliage covered with a whitish bloom. Bark whitish brown or reddish, fibrous, thick,...
-61. Eucalyptus dealbata
(A. Cunn., Schau. in Walp. Rep., ii, 924.) Cabbage, White Gum, or Mountain Gum. Systematic. - A fair-sized tree, from 60 to 80 feet high, with a smooth bark, which is occasionally rough at the base. ...
-62. Eucalyptus resinifera
(Sm. in White's Voy., 231; in Trans. Linn. Soc, iii, 284.) Red or Forest Mahogany. Systematic. - A tall forest tree extending throughout nearly the whole range of the coast district of New South Wale...
-63. Eucalyptus accedens
(W.V.F., in Jour. W.A. Nat. Hist. Soc, i, 21, 1904.) Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, attaining a height of 60 feet, with a smooth persistent, greyish or white bark, blotched with patches of darker...
-64. Eucalyptus vernicosa
(Hook., f. in Lond. Jour. Bot., vi, 478, 1847.) Systematic. - A bushy shrub or small tree, from 4 to 20 feet high. Bark smooth, dark red-brown, rough. Leaves alternate or opposite, oval, ovate or alm...
-65. Eucalyptus urnigera
(Hook., f. in Lond. Jour. Bot, VI, 477, 1847.) Urn Gum. Systematic. - A tree varying greatly in size, usually found at an altitude between 2,000 or 3,000 feet. Bark smooth, usually blotched with red ...
-66. Eucalyptus unialata
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Roy. Soc. Tas., 1912, p. 176, t. I.) Systematic. - A tree reaching 30 to 40 feet in height, with a bark flaky at the butt and smooth above. Abnormal leaves sessile, the lower pai...
-67. Eucalyptus Gullicki, sp. nov
Systematic. - A medium sized tree with a smoothish bark. Abnormal leaves lanceolate, rarely ovate, usually under 3 inches long, almost sessile, mucronate or acute, seldom obtuse, venation netted, oil ...
-68. Eucalyptus platypus
(Hook., Ic. Pl. t. 849, 1852.) Systematic. - A small tree with a smooth bark. Abnormal leaves ovate or obcordate. Normal leaves broadly ovate or orbicular, often crenate, mostly under 2 inches long, ...
-69. Eucalyptus calycogona
(Turcz. Bull. Phys.-Math. Acad., Petersb., 10, p. 338, 1852.) Gooseberry Mallee. Systematic. - A Mallee growing in wetter situations than generally obtains in this class of Eucalypts (W. Gill). Abn...
-70. Eucalyptus Dalrympleana
(J.H.M., in Forest Flora, N.S.W., Vol. VII, pt. 4.) A Mountain or White Gum. Systematic. - A large tree up to 30 feet in girth, with a smooth bark, white in spring, and later becoming red, the whole ...
-Group III. Class (b)
In this Group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil consisting principally of cineol and pinene, in which the cineol exceeds 55 per cent. Phellandrene and aromadendral* are absent. Note....
-71. Eucalyptus sideroxylon
(A. Cunn., in Mitch. Trop. Aust., 339, name only.) Red Flowering Ironbark. Systematic. - A tree occasionally as high as 100 feet. Bark persistent, rough, black, very deeply furrowed. Abnormal leaves ...
-72. Eucalyptus squamosa
(H.D. & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1897, p. 561, t. XIX.) Ironwood Systematic. - A fair sized tree, with a scaly or smoothish bark, somewhat resembling that of E. punctata. Abnormal leaves ova...
-73. Eucalyptus Smithii
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1899, p. 292, t. XX). White Top, Gully Ash, White Ironbark. Systematic. - A tall tree, sometimes attaining a height of 150 feet, and a diameter from 2 to 5 feet. Bar...
-74. Eucalyptus Bridgesiana
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1898, p. 164, t. V). Apple or Woolly-butt, Butt Butt of Gippsland (A. W. Howitt). Systematic. - A tree of considerable size, grows to a great height, particularly in...
-75. Eucalyptus populifolia
(Hook., in Ic. PL, t. 879, 1852.) Bimbil Box or Poplar-leaved Box. Systematic. - A medium-sized tree; bark persistent on the stem and branches, rough, not deeply furrowed, sometimes whitish or khaki ...
-76. Eucalyptus Parramattensis
(Cuthbert Hall, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1912, p. 568.) Systematic. - A medium sized tree, 30 feet in height, with a smooth, greyish, rather dirty bark. Abnormal leaves lanceolate, petiolate, thin, u...
-77. Eucalyptus parvifolia
(R.H.C, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1909, p. 336.) Systematic. - A small umbrageous tree, usually 20 to 30 feet in height, bark smooth, grey. Abnormal leaves ovate-lanceolate, opposite, decussate, under...
-78. Eucalyptus pumila
(R.H.C., Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1918, p. 453.) Systematic. - A tall shrub, Mallee like, reaching 15 to 20 feet in height. Branchlets angular at extremities. Abnormal leaves ovate to ovate-lanceola...
-79. Eucalyptus pulverulenta
(Sims, in Bot. Mag., t. 2087.) (Syn. E. pulvigera, A. Cunn.) Systematic - A tall shrub, with a weak green stem hardly able to support itself (Sims), the bark on the thicker stems is smooth, flakin...
-80. Eucalyptus Morrisii
(R.T B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 312, t. XVIII). Grey Mallee. Systematic. - A Mallee of rather dense growth, or somewhat spreading; usually about 15 feet high, or somewhat higher; stems 2...
-81. Eucalyptus Moorei
(J.H.M. & R.H.C., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1905, p. 191.) Systematic. - An erect, rather slender shrub up to 12 feet in height, forming dense clumps of small area; bark smooth, with the outer bark pe...
-82. Eucalyptus Muelleri
(T. B. Moore, in Roy. Soc, Tas., 207, 1886.) Brown Gum. Systematic. - A large tree, attaining a height of 200 feet. Bark scaly at base, smooth above, reddish in colour, often blotched. Abnormal leave...
-83. Eucalyptus longicornis
(F.v.M., in Fragm. XI, 14, 1878.) Morrel. Systematic. - A tree attaining a height of 120 feet, with a rugose, ash-coloured bark on the trunk, persisting to the branches. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate,...
-84. Eucalyptus Perriniana
(F.v.M.) Systematic. - A Mallee or small tree attaining a diameter of 1 foot, and sometimes up to 30 feet in height, with a smooth bark. The broad expanded base, from which spring a number of small...
-85. Eucalyptus costata
(R. Br.) (Desc. by Schiu., in Walp. Repert., ii, 925, 1843, under E. angulcsa, and by Mueller under Brown's name. Trans. Vic. Inst., 3854, 33, and recently by Luehmann, Vic. Nat., vol. xiii, p. 147, ...
-86. Eucalyptus maculosa
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1899, p. 598, t. XL IV.) Spotted Gum or Brittle Gum. Systematic. - A tree rarely exceeding 60 feet in height, usually from 20 to 40 feet. Bark smooth to the ground. ...
-87. Eucalyptus goniocalyx
(F.v.M., in Fragm., vol. ii, 48, 1860.) A Mountain Gum. Systematic- A very tall tree with a smooth bark, except for a few feet at the base, found mostly on basalt and granite ridges. Abnormal leaves ...
-88. Eucalyptus globulus
(Labill, Voy. I, 153, t. XIII.) Blue Gum. Systematic. - A lofty tree with a smooth, whitish-blue bark. Abnormal leaves sessile, or shortly petiolate, cordate, covered (as also the twigs) with a glauc...
-89. Eucalyptus Nepeanensis
(Sp. nov.) Box. Systematic. A medium-sized tree, with Box bark on the lower portions of the stem. Leaves lanceolate, but very variable in size, from broad lanceolate (2 inches broad and over 6 inch...
-90. Eucalyptus cordata
(Labill., PL Nov. Holl, ii, 13, t. 152, 1806.) Systematic. - A small glaucous tree or shrub, with a smooth, deciduous bark. Leaves opposite, thinly coriaceous, obcordate, broadly ovate, ovate-acumina...
-91. Eucalyptus Australians
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1915, P. 514) Black Peppermint. Systematic - It attains forest tree height, but more often is only a medium sized tree. The bark is persistent well out on th...
-91. Eucalyptus Australians. Part 2
The determination of rotations so far made, have shown the first hour oii to be usually slightly dextro-rotatory, although if the distillation be continued longer, the resulting oil may be slightly ...
-91. Eucalyptus Australians. Part 3
Numerous analyses of this first hour oil have been made at the Technological Museum, beyond those enumerated in the table mentioned above. They were, however, all in agreement, so that it is unneces...
-Group IV. Class a
In this Group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil containing over 40 per cent, of cineol, but in which pinene is diminishing and aroma-dendral* making its appearance, thus approaching t...
-92. Eucalyptus elceophora
(F.v.M., Frag., iv., 1863-64, p. 52.) Bundy or Half Box. Systematic. - A rather low stunted tree with a somewhat fibrous bark, resembling that of E. Bridgesiana. Abnormal leaves vary much in size and...
-93. Eucalyptus punctata
(DC, Prod., iii, 217.) Grey Gum. Systematic. - A large tree, with a dirty looking, smoothish, or friable bark, and rectangular branchlets. Abnormal leaves ovate, lanceolate, often shortly acuminate, ...
-94. Eucalyptus tereticornis, Sm., var. cineolifera nobis. Red Gum
Systematic. - A tree attaining a height of 80 feet and over, 2 feet in diameter, with a smooth, yellowish bark, blotched with dark-brown patches. Normal leaves coarse, broad-lanceolate to lanceolate, ...
-95. Eucalyptus cosmophylla
(F.v.M., in Trans., Vict. Inst., 32, 1855.) Systematic. - A shrubby tree, though sometimes found up to 50 feet in height. Bark smooth (decorticating in thin flakes or sheets). Abnormal leaves, broad,...
-96. Eucalyptus stricta
(Sieb., in DC. Prod, iii, 28, Mem. Myrt., t. 8.) Systematic. - A shrubby species with linear-lanceolate, shining leaves, of a leathery texture and the veins scarcely visible, but upon removing the cu...
-97. Eucalyptus oleosa
(F.v.M., in Neder. Kruid. Arch., lv, 127.) Red or Water Mallee.* Systematic. - A small tree or shrub, under 20 feet, Bark rough and persistent (F.v.M. , branches smooth. Leaves scattered, narrow-lanc...
-98. Eucalyptus dumosa
(A. Cunn., Schau. in Walp. Rep., ii, 925.) Bull Mallee. Systematic- Found only in the dry interior of the Continent, and rarely attains tree form. The bark is white and smooth. Leaves lanceolate, und...
-99. Eucalyptus polybractea
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 692.) Blue Mallee. Systematic. - A glaucous shrub, with quadrangular branchlets. Leaves lanceolate (those on the early shoots lanceolate to oblanceolate), e...
-100. Eucalyptus cneorifolia
(DC, in Prod , iii, p. 220.) Narrow-leaved Mallee. Systematic. - A shrub or small tree. Leaves from narrow-linear to oblong-lanceolate, straight or rarely falcate, mostly under 4 inches long, thick, ...
-101. Eucalyptus odorata
(Behr. in Linnæa, XX, 657.) Box-tree or Peppermint. Systematic. - A small tree, or Mallee, bark Box-like. Abnormal leaves linear to broadly lanceolate, dull, often glaucous or bluish green. Norma...
-Group IV. Class b
In this Group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil containing over 40 per cent of cineol, but in which phellandrene is making its appearance, thus approaching the more pronounced phellan...
-102. Eucalyptus melliodora
(A. Cunn., Herb.) Yellow Box. Systematic. - Generally a fair-sized tree. Bark persistent, smooth, and buff-coloured, or sometimes rugged towards the base; of a rich yellow colour on the inner side. A...
-103. Eucalyptus ovallfolia, R.T.B. var. lanceolata
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Euc. and their Ess Oils, 1st Ed., 1902, p. 124.) Systematic. - A typical forest tree, with a smooth bark. Leaves lanceolate, 4 to 6 inches long or more, rarely above 1 inch broad...
-104. Eucalyptus Consideniana
(J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1904, p. 475.) Systematic. - A tree of medium height, with a peppermint baric. Abnormal leaves narrow, ovate lanceolate, petiolate, alternate, thin, margin slightly ...
-105. Eucalyptus Risdoni
(Hook. f. in Hook. Journ., vi, 477, and Fl. Tasm., i, 133, t. 24.) Risdon or Drooping Gum. Systematic. - A small or medium-sized tree, with a smooth, deciduous bark, and glaucous foliage, inflorescen...
-106. Eucalyptus linearis
(A. Cunn.) White Peppermint. Systematic. - A fairly tall tree with a clean, smooth, yellow or whitish bark, sometimes rough for a few feet at the base. Abnormal leaves opposite or alternate, linear, ...
-Group V
In this Group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil consisting largely of cineol, pinene, and aromadendral,* but in which the cineol does not exceed 40 per cent. Phellandrene is usually a...
-107. Eucalyptus tereticornis
(Sm., Bot. Nov. Holl. 41 (1793), and in Trans. Linn. Soc, iii, 284.) Forest Red Gum. Systematic. - A tall tree with a smooth bark, although occasionally rough at the base. Abnormal leaves orbicular t...
-108. Eucalyptus punctata, var. didyma
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Euc. and their Ess. Oils, Edit. 1902, p. 127.) Ironwood Systematic. - This variety is distinguished from the type by its having two opercula to each bud and by the difference in...
-109. Eucalyptus rostrata
(Schlecht. in Linnea, xx, 655.) Murray Red Gum. Systematic. - A tall tree with a whitish, smooth, persistent bark. Leaves lanceolate, falcate, up to 9 inches long and 1 inch wide, of medium thickness...
-109. Eucalyptus rostrata. Continued
On rectification about 2 per cent, of acid water and some aldehydes came over below 1730 C. (corr.). Between 173-188, 51 per cent. distilled; between 188-255, 3 Per cent, came over, and...
-110. Eucalyptus propinqua
(H.D. & J.H.M., in Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1895, p. 541, t. XLIII.) Grey Gum of the North Coast N.S.W. Systematic. - A large, straight growing tree, found up to 4 or 5 feet in diameter, and 120 feet...
-111. Eucalyptus Deanei
(J.H.M., in Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1904, p. 471.) Systematic. - A very large tree, with a smooth bark, ribbony at the base, having extensive buttresses. Abnormal leaves ovate, sometimes orbicular, ...
-112. Eucalyptus Rudderu
(J.H.M., in Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1904, p. 779.) Red Box. Systematic. - A tree reaching 120 feet in height and 2 to 3 feet in diameter, the bark somewhat like the ordinary Grey Box, E. hemiphloi...
-113. Eucalyptus salubris
(F.v.M., in Fragm. x. 54, 1876.) Gimlet Gum. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a smooth, thin bark, stem usually much twisted. Branchlets often green in colour. Abnormal leaves ovate-lanceolate, petiol...
-114. Eucalyptus occidentalism
(Endl., in Hueg. Enum., 49, 1837.) Systematic. - A tree sometimes reaching a height of 120 feet, but often found flowering when quite small. Abnormal leaves broad, ovate, cordate, somewhat acute. Nor...
-115. Eucalyptus exserta
(F.v.M., in Jour. Linn. Soc, 1859, iii, 85.) Systematic - A small tree, with an ash-brown, scaly, wrinkled and fissured bark, persistent on trunk and branches. Leaves alternate, narrow-lanceolate, el...
-116. Eucalyptus marginata
(Sin., in Trans. Linn. Soc., vi, 302, 1802.) Jarrah. Systematic. A large tree, averaging 100 feet in height, the bark persistent and fibrous, but being flaky it is not a true .Stringybark. Leaves o...
-117. Eucalyptus affinis
(H.D. & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 104, t. V.) Systematic. - A tree of moderate size, attaining a height of 80 feet and a diameter of 2 feet 6 inches. The bark in appearance looks half...
-118. Eucalyptus Fletcheri
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1901, p. 682, t. XIV.) Lignum-vitæ or Box. Systematic - A medium-sized tree, with a Box bark on the trunk; branches smooth, branchlets glaucous. Leaves from orbicu...
-119. Eucalyptus Woollsiana
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 684, t. XLIII.) Mallee Box. Systematic. - A large tree, up to 80 feet high, and more than 3 feet in diameter. Bark persistent half-way or more up the trunk,...
-120. Eucalyptus albens
(Miq., in Ned. Kruidk. Arch., iv., 138.) White Box. Systematic. - Generally a finer tree than its congener E. hemiphloia, F.v.M. The barks of both are very similar, being white, but not deeply furrow...
-121. Eucalyptus hemiphloia
(F.v.M., Fragm., ii, 62.) Box. Systematic. - This tree is stated by some collectors to reach 150 feet in height, with a corresponding diameter, but we have never found it to exceed 80 to 90 feet, and...
-122. Eucalyptus gracilis
(F.v.M., in Trans. Vict. Inst., i., 35, andEucalyptographia, Dec, iii, partim.) A Mallee. Systematic. - A shrub or small tree with a smooth bark, having several stems from the same root. Leaves la...
-123. Eucalyptus viridis
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 316, t. XIX.) Green Mallee, Red Mallee, Brown Mallee. Systematic. - A Mallee of dense growth, the stems usually 2 to 3 inches in diameter, but occasionall...
-124. Eucalyptus uncinata
(Turcz., in Bull. Mosc, 1849, ii, 23, Syn. E. leptophylla, Miq.) A Mallee. Systematic. - A tall shrub, with several thin stems, branched from near the base, with a smooth, red, or ashy-grey bark, co...
-Group VI
In this group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil consisting principally of pinene, cineol, and phellandrene, but in which the cineol does not exceed 40 per cent. 125. Eucal...
-125. Eucalyptus viminalis
(Labill., in Pl. Nov. Holl., ii, 126, t. 151.) Manna or White Gum. Systematic - Sometimes a very large tree, probably the largest of New South Wales Eucalypts. Bark smooth, decorticating in long stri...
-126. Eucalyptus Gunnii
(Hook., f., in Lond. Journ. Bot., iii, 499, 1844). Cider Gum. Systematic. - A small tree with a smooth bark, foliage glaucous when young. Abnormal leaves cordate-ovate or ovate sessile or with petiol...
-127. Eucalyptus rubida
(H.D. & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1899, p. 456, t. XL.) Candle Bark. Systematic. - A tall tree with a smooth bark falling off in ribbons. Abnormal leaves from nearly orbicular to nearly oblon...
-128. Eucalyptus Irbyi, sp. nov
Systematic. - A small tree, with a smooth, pale or ashy-coloured bark. Abnormal leaves broad-ovate to ovate, sometimes mucronate, petiolate, base rounded, truncate or slightly cordate, fairly thick an...
-129. Eucalyptus Bancrofti
(J.H.M., in frit. Rev. Gen. Euc, vol. 4, 14, 1917.) Rocky Gum. Systematic. A medium-sized tree, usually gnarled, bark smooth, falling off in patches. Abnormal leaves ovate-lanceolate, on long, thin p...
-130. Eucalyptus acervula
(Hook, f., in Flora Tasmania, 1859.) Red Gum, White Swamp Gum. Systematic. - A tree about 30 feet in height, with a rough untidy dark-coloured bark; the bark on the branches is smooth and clean. Abno...
-131. Eucalyptus hæmastoma
(Sm., in Trans. Linn. Soc., iii, 285.) White or Scribbly Gum. Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, having a white, smooth bark, almost invariably showing insect markings, similar to a Scribble, hence...
-132. Eucalyptus Laseroni
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1912, p. 585.) Systematic. - A small tree, under 40 feet in height, 1 foot in diameter, with a hard stringybark, decorticating in strips from the main branches, whic...
-133. Eucalyptus ovalifolia
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 68o, t. XLVI, figs. 6a, 6b.) Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, with a smooth bark, decorticating at the base of the trunk, producing a roughish appearance....
-134. Eucalyptus Dawsoni
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1899, p. 294, t. XXI.) Slaty Gum. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a smooth bark. The foliage, branchlets, buds, and fruits, glaucous. Abnormal leaves broadly lanceo...
-135. Eucalyptus angophoroides
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1901, p. 676.) Apple-top Box. Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, with a white box bark, persistent to the ultimate branchlets. Abnormal leaves ovate-acuminate, corda...
-136. Eucalyptus microtheca
(F.v.M., in Journ. Linn. Soc, iii, 87.) Coolabah or Tangoon. Systematic - A tree attaining a height of 80 feet, and a stem diameter of 4 feet (H. K. Bennett). Bark rough, more or less dark or ashy-gr...
-137. Eucalyptus fastigata
(H.D. & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1895, p. 798.) Blackbutt, Peppermint, Cut Tail. Systematic. - A tall tree, the bark of which resembles closely that of E. obliqua, the principal difference b...
-138. Eucalyptus fraxinoides
(H.D. & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1898, p. 413, t. XIX.) White Ash. Systematic. - A tall tree, bark rough half-way up the trunk, and sometimes the upper part, outer layer falling off in ribbon...
-139. Eucalyptus macrorhyncha
(F.v.M., in B.F1., iii, 207.) Red Stringybark. Systematic. - A tall tree, bark compact, coarse, stringy, blackish on the outer surface. Abnormal leaves ovate to lanceolate, falcate, shortly acuminate...
-140. Eucalyptus capitellata
(Sm., in Bot. Nov. Holl., 42, and in Trans. Linn. Soc, iii, 285.) Brown Stringybark. Systematic. - A large tree, bark fibrous, stringy, brownish. Abnormal leaves lanceolate, straight, pale-coloured; ...
-141. Eucalyptus acmenioides
(Schau., in Walp. Rep., ii, 924.) White Mahogany. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a lightish-coloured stringybark. Leaves lanceolate, thin, mostly about 4 inches long and 1 inch wide, dark green on t...
-142. Eucalyptus Planchoniana
(F.v.M., Fragm. xi, 43, Eucalyptographia, Dec. 4.) A Stringybark. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a fibrous bark, much resembling E. obliqua and E. fastigata. Abnormal leaves large, sometimes 1 foot ...
-143. Eucalyptus pilularis
(Sm., in Trans. Linn. Soc, iii, 284; B.F1., iii, 208.) Blackbutt. Systematic. - One of the tallest trees of the Genus. Leaves thick, shining, sometimes over 6 inches long, lanceolate, falcate, obliqu...
-144. Eucalyptus obliqua
(L'Her., in Sert. Angl., 18, t. 20.) (Syn. E. gigantea, Hook. f.; E. jalcifolia, Miq.; E. nervosa, F.v.M.) Stringybark. Systematic. - One of the largest trees on the Australian continent and in Tasm...
-145. Eucalyptus crebra
(F.v.M., in Journ. Linn. Soc, iii, 87.) Narrow-leaved Ironbark. Systematic. - This ironbark often grows to a very large tree, and is the most widely-distributed of all the Ironbarks, as it occurs o...
-146. Eucalyptus siderophloia
(Benth., in B.FL, iii, 220.) Broad-leaved or Red Ironbark. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a deeply-furrowed, black bark, which is hard and close in the mature trees, but laminated in the younger one...
-147. Eucalyptus melanophloia
(F.v.M., in Journ. Linn. Soc., iii, 93.) Silver-leaved Ironbark. Systematic. - A small tree with a blackish, persistent, sometimes deeply-furrowed bark; with foliage, inflorescence, and fruits all gl...
-148. Eucalyptus cærulea, sp. nov
Stunted Ironbark Systematic. - Only a medium-sized tree, with a black-furrowed bark, glaucous throughout, except the bark. Leaves mostly ovate-lanceolate, shortly acuminate or rounded, to lanceolate,...
-Group VII. Class a
In this group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil consisting largely of phellandrene, cineol and piperitone, but in which cineol does not exceed 40 per cent: - 149. Eucalypt...
-149. Eucalyptus piperita
(Smith, in Trans. Linn. Soc, iii, 286 partly.) The Sydney Peppermint. Systematic. - A tall tree, bark fibrous, but not so furrowed as in the Stringybarks, hoary on the outer surface. Abnormal leave...
-150. Eucalyptus amygdalina
(Labill. in Pl. Nov. Holl., ii, 14, t. 154.) Black Peppermint. Systematic. - An average forest tree in height. The bark is characteristic of the Peppermint variety, as illustrated in this work. The...
-151. Eucalyptus amygdalina, var. nitida. Benth
(B. Fl. iii, 203.) Systematic - The data given under E. phellandra applies in almost every particular to this species, so that no systematic description is required. As the cineol content is very lo...
-152. Eucalyptus phellandra, sp. nov
Narrow Leaf Peppermint Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, with a typical Peppermint bark. Abnormal leaves lanceolate, cordate, sessile, usually under 5 inches long and 3/4 inch broad, upper surface...
-152. Eucalyptus phellandra, sp. nov. Part 2
The crude oil had specific gravity at 150 C. = 0.9026; rotation aD - 10.3; refractive index at 20 = 1.4703, and was soluble in 1 1/4 volumes 70 per cent. alcohol. The saponification number f...
-152. Eucalyptus phellandra, sp. nov. Part 3
The oil as thus obtained was water-white, of a pleasant aromatic odour, and although containing phellandrene, yet that constituent was not present in excessive amount. It is thus seen that the oil fro...
-153. Eucalyptus vitrea
(R.T.B.. Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 1 3, t. XV.) White Top Messmate. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a roughish bark, similar to E. amygdalina, Labill., the extremities of the branches being s...
-154. Eucalyptus Luehmanniana
(F.v.M., in Frag., xi, 38.) Systematic. - A small tree, or 'Mallee, ' with a flaky bark towards the butt of the trunk, upper- limbs smooth, branchlets distinctly quadrangular, or flattened and glauco...
-155. Eucalyptus coccifera
(Hook., f., in Lond. Journ. Bot., vi, 477, 1847.) Systematic. - A small tree, generally very glaucous, with a smooth white bark. Abnormal leaves opposite, sessile or shortly petiolate, oval, rarely o...
-Group VII. Class b
In this Group arc placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil consisting largely of phellandrene and piperitone, but in which cineol is almost, if not quite, absent: - 156. Eucalyptus c...
-156. Eucalyptus coriacea
(A. Cunn., Schau., in Walp, Rep., ii, 925.) (Syn. E. pauciflora, Sieb.) Cabbage or White Gum. Systematic. - A tall tree in favourable situations, but is found in a dwarf form on Mount Kosciusko, Sno...
-157. Eucalyptus Sieberiana
(F.v.M., in Eucalyptographia, Dec, ii, 1879.) Mountain Ash. Systematic - A tall tree with a dark, fibrous, deeply-furrowed bark. Abnormal leaves oblique, ovate, shortly acuminate, and about 3 inches ...
-158. Eucalyptus campanulata
(R.T.fe. & H.G.S., Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1911, p. 288.) A Stringybark. Systematic. - An average forest tree, with a stringybark, persistent on the trunk, branches smooth. Abnormal leaves broad-lanc...
-159. Eucalyptus oreades
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1899, p. 596, t. XLIII.) A Mountain Ash. Systematic. - A tall tree, with a smooth, whitish bark, or sometimes haying a slightly rough bark 6 to 8 feet from the groun...
-160. Eucalyptus Delegatensis
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1900, p. 305, t. XVI.) Silver-topped Mountain Ash. Systematic. - A very tall tree, occurring on the top of mountain ranges in the south-east corner of New South Wale...
-161. Eucalyptus regnans
(F.V.M., in Report Acclm. Soc., Vict., 20, 1870.) Giant Gum-tree. Systematic. - A tree at last stupendously tall; bark outside whitish and smooth except at the stem base; leaves of young seedlings op...
-162. Eucalyptus gomphocephala
. (I).C, in Prod., iii, 220, 1828.) Tuart. Systematic. A large tree, up to 150 feet in height, and 20 feet in girth, with a smooth or rough Box-like persistent bark. Abnormal leaves ovate, lanceol...
-163. Eucalyptus tæniola
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., Roy. Soc. Tas., p. 198, 1912.) Systematic. - A tree of about 40 to 50 feet high and 2 feet in diameter, with a peppermint bark. Abnormal leaves opposite or alternate linear, lance...
-164. Eucalyptus Andrewsi
(J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1904, p. 472.) New England Peppermint. Systematic. - A tall tree averaging 80 feet in height, reaching in some situations 150 to 180 feet (J.H.M ); bark Peppermint...
-165. Eucalyptus dives
(Schauer, in Walp. Rep., ii, 926.) Peppermint or Broad-leaved Peppermint. Systematic. - A tree often attaining very large dimensions, although it is found in flower and fruit when only a few feet hig...
-166. Eucalyptus radiata
(Sieb., in DC. Prod., iii, 218.) White-top Peppermint or Paver White Gum. Systematic. - A fairly tall tree. It has a hard, black bark on the lower part of the trunk, but smooth on the upper portion o...
-Group VIII
In this Group are placed the following Eucalypts yielding an oil not readily placed in the other groups. Cineol is almost or quite absent. 167. Eucalyptus virgata. 168. E. ...
-167. Eucalyptus virgata
(Sieb., in DC. Prod., iii, 217.) Systematic. - An average forest tree, stated by Rodway to attain a height of over 100 feet; branchlets glaucous; bark thick, laminated, running down in ridges, friabl...
-168. Eucalyptus stellulata
(Sieb., in DC. Prod., iii, 217.) Lead Gum, Black Sally. Systematic. - Generally a moderate-sized tree, but on the Monaro, N.S.W., attains a diameter of 4 to 5 feet; bark smooth, lead-coloured, but pa...
-169. Eucalyptus Macarthuri
(H.D. & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1899, p. 448, t. XXXVIII.) Paddy's River Box, Camden Woollybutt. Systematic. - A medium-sized tree, with a rough, somewhat Box-like bark. Abnormal leaves li...
-169. Eucalyptus Macarthuri. Continued
First fraction, sp. gr. at 150 C. = 0.8823; rotation not taken. Second = 0.9111; aD + 1.0. Third ...
-170. Eucalyptus aggregata
(H.D. & J.H.M., Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1899, P. 614. pl. XLIX.) Black Gum. Systematic. - Usually small, gnarled trees, with a trunk of 12 to 18 inches or even 2 feet in diameter. Abnormal leaves ...
-171. Eucalyptus Staigeriana
(F.v.M., in Edit. Bailey in Synopsis Queensland Flora, 176, 1883.) Lemon-scented Ironbark. Systematic. - A medium-sized tree with glaucous foliage. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, usually under 5 inches ...
-172. Eucalyptus patentinervis
(R.T.B., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1899, p. 602, t. XLV.) Half Mahogany. Systematic. - A good-sized tree, as far as seen, with a bark similar to that of some species of Pines. Ultimate branchlets angu...
-173. Eucalyptus citriodora
(Hook., Mitch., Trop. Austr., 235.) Citron-scented Gum. Systematic. - A large tree with a smooth, whitish bark. Leaves lanceolate, up to 6 inches long and 9 lines wide, acuminate, not shining; venati...
-174. Eucalyptus Marsdeni
(Cuthbert Hall, in Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1918, p. 747.) Systematic. - A tree 30 feet high in specimen observed, and probably would attain a height of 60 to 80 feet when fully grown. Bark smooch on...
-175. Eucalyptus ligustrina
(DC, in Prod., vol. iii, p. 219.) Systematic. - A low shrub, a few feet in height. Abnormal leaves ovate or oblong, thick and mucronate, about 1/2 inch in length, shortly petiolate or alternate. Norm...
-176. Eucalyptus apiculata
(R.T.B. & H.G.S., in Euc. and their Ess. Oils, 1st Edit., 1902.) Systematic. - A shrub 6 to 8 feet high. Leaves narrow, lanceolate, with a pronounced recurved point, erect, thinly coriaceous, shining...
-177. Eucalyptus Baileyana
[F.v.M., Fragm. xl, p. 37 (1878).] Rough Stringybark. Systematic. - A large tree, reaching a height of 150 feet, and a diameter of 4 feet. Bark fibrous, persistent on the branches as well as the trun...
-178. Eucalyptus obtusiflora
(DC, Prod., iii, p. 220; and Mem. Myrt, t. 10.) Systematic. - A stunted tree, with either a smooth or roughish bark. Leaves lanceolate, rarely falcate, shortly acuminate, usually about 3 inches long ...
-Part III. Technological And Chemical
Tabulated Results obtained with the Crude Oils, at time of distillation, together with their Chief Constituents. Complete data in reference to the oils of individual species are not given here, an...
-Average Yields of Oil from the Several Species of Eucalyptus included in this work
Considered broadly the variation in the amounts of oil obtainable from the leaves of any particular species of Eucalyptus depends largely on the season and on the condition of growth of the material e...
-The Alteration in Specific Gravity of Eucalyptus Oils at Various Temperatures
As considerable differences occur in the specific gravities of Eucalyptus oils at various temperatures, it was necessary that some standard be established whereby the several oils might be brought int...
-The Alteration in the Refractive Index of Ordinary Eucalyptus Oils under the Influence of Changes of Temperature
The apparatus employed was a Zeiss-Abbe Refractometer with heatable prisms, and water at the stated temperatures was run through the machine for one half hour before final reading. The three species c...
-Eucalyptus Oils and their Constituents
The constituents detected in Eucalyptus oils now number about forty. Many of them, however, are identical with similar substances occurring in other essential oils, and are thus obtainable from other ...
-Earlier Investigations
The first investigation of a Eucalyptus oil was undertaken by M. Cloez (Compt. Rend., 1870, p. 687) upon the oil of E. globulus. Trees of this species of Eucalyptus had for some years previously been ...
-Cincol (or Eucalyptol)
This constituent of Eucalyptus oils has the formula C10Hl8O; specific gravity at 150 C. = 0.930; refractive index at 20 C. = 1.4584; boiling point 1760 C.; is optically inactive; crystallises at ...
-The Phosphoric Acid Compound
Cineol forms a crystalline compound with phosphoric acid of specific gravity about 1.75, and this reaction is taken advantage of for its detection, as well as for its quantitative determination. It is...
-Quantitative Determination Of Cineol In Eucalyptus Oils
Although several methods for the quantitative determination of cineol have been employed, chiefly based on the reactions and combinations it forms with various reagents, yet, it must be admitted that ...
-The Arsenic Acid Method
This method was proposed by J. L. Turner and R. C. Holmes in America in 1914. It depends on the fact that arsenic acid of about 85 per cent. strength combines with cineol to form a solid compound in t...
-The Resorcinol Method
This method for the quantitative estimation of cineol in Eucalyptus oils was first introduced by Schimmel and Co. in 1907 (semi-annual report for October). The principle is based on the fact that cine...
-The Phosphoric Acid Method
The phosphoric acid method for the determination of cineol in Eucalyptus oils was originally discovered by Mr. L. R. Scammell, of Adelaide, South Australia, in 1892, and was the outcome of an investig...
-A Rapid Phosphoric Acid Method, Using Petroleum Ether
This method, which we now propose, works very well with most Eucalyptus oils containing 20 per cent, of cineol or over, is quickly carried out, and thus suitable for commercial analytical work. Eucaly...
-Summary Of Methods
The foregoing may be summarised as follows: - 1. That an accurate method for determining the amount of cineol in Eucalyptus oils under all conditions has yet to be discovered. 2. That no one present...
-Summary Of Methods. Continued
The time of year also appears to have some influence on the ester formation in the oil of E. Macarthuri, but to a less extent than the age of the leaf material, so that the oil distilled commercially ...
-The Terpincols of Eucalyptus Oils
In a paper on Eucalyptus Australiana and its essential oil, read by us before the Royal Society of New South Wales, December, 1915, it was shown that a considerable quantity of a high-boiling aromatic...
-The Terpincols of Eucalyptus Oils. Continued
Terpineol was also prepared from the second and third hour oils of this species, distilled from material growing at Nerrigundah, New South Wales. 500 c.c. boiling above 190 C. were repeatedly fra...
-Piperitol, the corresponding Alcohol to Piperitone
This secondary alcohol occurs in the oils of the Peppermint group of Eucalypts, and although several members of this group give an oil containing only a comparatively small amount of piperitone (the...
-Eudesmol, the Bicyclic Sesquiterpene Alcohol of Eucalyptus Oils
Crystallised eudesmol was first discovered by us in the oil of Eucalyptus piperita, and announced in a paper read before the Royal Society of New South Wales in August, 1897. Later, further work upon ...
-Eudesmol, the Bicyclic Sesquiterpene Alcohol of Eucalyptus Oils. Continued
Unlike the originally crystallised eudesmol, these sublimed composite needles did not polarise at all well, but if melted, and again allowed to crystallise, they showed the same peculiarities of cryst...
-Method Of Preparation Of Eudesmol
For the preparation of pure crystallised eudesmol from a freshly distilled Eucalyptus oil, rich in the stearoptene, the following method was adopted as being the most convenient. Constituents boiling ...
-Chemical And Physical Properties Of Eudesmol
Semmler and Tobias (loc. cit.) give the following constants which they had determined for eudesmol:- melting point 780 C.; boiling point 1560, at 10 millimetres pressure; specific gravity at 200 = 0.9...
-Specific Rotations Of Eudesmol
The specific rotations of crystallised eudesmol which we have prepared from the oils of the various Eucalyptus species enumerated below, taken in each case in about 12 per cent. chloroform solution, w...
-Melting Point Of Eudesmol
The melting point of eudesmol is given by Semmler and Tobias as 78 C, but in all the samples of eudesmol we have prepared from the oils of different species of Eucalyptus, the melting point of th...
-The Cyclic (Aromatic) Aldehydes occurring in Eucalyptus Oils
Cuminal C10H12O, Aromadcndral C10H14O. Cryptal C10H16O. and Another. One or more members of this very interesting group of aromatic aldehydes occur in the oils distilled from the members of the typic...
-The Cyclic (Aromatic) Aldehydes occurring in Eucalyptus Oils. Continued
The oils of most Eucalypts growing as Mallees contain one or more of these aldehydes, and these species are thus shown to be closely associated with the members of the Box group. Eucalyptus Wooll...
-Cryptal From The Oil Of E. Polybractea
The residues obtained on rectifying, for commercial purposes, the oil of this species by steam, were employed for the purpose of determining the aldehydes of this Eucalyptus. The procedure adopted was...
-Citral
This constituent, found in some Eucalyptus oils, is one of the olefine terpene aldehydes, and because of its close relationship to geraniol is sometimes named geranial; it can be obtained artificially...
-Citronellal
This characteristic aldehyde is also one of the olefine terpene series. It occurs most abundantly in the oil of Eucalyptus citriodora, in fact at most times of the year it is found to contain over 90 ...
-Piperitonc, the Peppermint Ketone of Eucalyptus Oils
This unsaturated aromatic ketone is more generally distributed in the oils of Eucalypts growing in the Eastern and South Eastern portion of the continent, and in Tasmania, where the members of the who...
-Preparation Of Laevo-Rotatory Piperitone
200 c.c. of an ordinary commercial oil of E. dives were subjected to distillation under reduced pressure, and after the removal of the lower boiling terpenes, two fractions were obtained boiling at ...
-Reduction Of Piperitone
When the ketone is reduced by sodium-amalgam in alcoholic solution, large quantities of a dimolecular ketone are formed, the bulk of the reaction taking this direction. This substance crystallises wel...
-Preparation Of Menthone And Menthol From Piperitone
When piperitone was reduced with purified hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst, at a temperature of about 1800 C. for six hours, the double bond was opened out, and, under the best conditions...
-Preparation Of Thymol From Piperitone
60 gram. piperitone were added to a solution of 175 gram. ferric chloride, 160 c.c. glacial acetic acid, and 500 c.c. water. The whole was then heated on the sand bath to boiling. The action takes pla...
-Qualitative And Quantitative Determination Of Piperitone
The presence of piperitone can be determined somewhat readily in Eucalyptus oils, as the crystalline compound formed when treated with sodium-amalgam in ether-alcohol solution is quite characteristic....
-The Phenols of Eucalyptus Oils
Practically all crude Eucalyptus oils contain phenols, more particularly if the original distillations have been at all extended. The actual amount in the oils of most species is, however, very small...
-Tasmanol
This is a liquid phenol, but little coloured when prepared in as pure a condition as was possible, but it darkened somewhat on keeping. The product from E. linearis had specific gravity at 23 C. ...
-Australol
This crystallised phenol could be best prepared from the oils of the typical Boxes, such as E. hemiphloia, E. Woollsiana, etc. We utilised the former of these species because it grows plentifully in...
-The Free Volatile Acid of Eucalyptus Oils
Free acids usually occur in Eucalyptus oils, and in some of them it is present in sufficient amount to attack the iron of the still when the leaves are undergoing the process of distillation. The reas...
-The Butyl Ester of Butyric Acid in Eucalyptus Oils
A low boiling ester, with a low refractive index, occurs in some quantity in the oil of E. Perriniana, is characteristic of this species whether growing in Tasmania or New South Wales, and is one of t...
-The Valeric Acid Ester occurring in some Eucalyptus Oils
It has been shown (see tabulated list) that esters, either in large or small amounts, occur in all Eucalyptus oils, varying from 60 to 77 per cent, of geranyl acetate, in the oil of E. Macarthuri, to ...
-The Amyl Esters of Eucalyptus Oils
Esters of the character of amyl-eudesmate and amyl-phenylacetate have, so far, only been found in a very few Eucalyptus oils. They appear to be present in greatest amount in that from E. aggregata, an...
-Determination Of The Alcohol
A portion of the Fagan's Creek oil was boiled for several hours with aqueous potash under a reflex, and the solution then distilled. The aqueous distillate was surmounted by an oil which had the chara...
-Determination Of Eudesmic Acid
The crude oil from the Fagan's Creek material was fractionated, and the portion distilling between 245-292 C. treated with aqueous potash, the adhering oil removed by ether, and the alkaline solu...
-Determination Of Phenylacetic Acid
The crude oil from the Rydal material was boiled for some hours with aqueous potash and the acid of the ester prepared in the usual way. When finally purified it was of a laminated structure and a par...
-The Pinenes of Eucalyptus Oils
During this research it has been demonstrated that both lævo- and dextrorotatory pinenes occur in Eucalyptus oils in varying quantities, from the small amount found in the richer cineol yielding speci...
-The Pinenes of Eucalyptus Oils. Part 2
In 1895 Bourchardat and Tardy carried out experiments with the hydrocarbon found occurring in small quantity in the oil of E. globulus, and arrived at the conclusion that it had the properties o...
-The Pinenes of Eucalyptus Oils. Part 3
The Laevo-rotatory Pinene. - The crude oil of E. Iævopinea, from Rylstone, N.S.W., distilled a few days after collection, gave the following results: - On rectification 2 per cent. came over below 15...
-The Eucalyptus Oils Yielding Pinene for Turpentine Production
During the systematic investigation of the various Eucalyptus oils recorded in this work, it was found that pinene is a most pronounced constituent in certain species, the greater portion of several o...
-Phellandrene in Eucalyptus Oils
This terpene is somewhat extensively distributed in the oils of certain groups of Eucalypts, being more pronounced in those belonging to the more recent end of the genus, and to occur more abundantly ...
-Terpinene in Eucalyptus Oils
The occurrence of this terpene in the oils of certain Eucalypts was first announced by one of us, in a paper read before the Royal Society of New South Wales in December, 1918. It had been isolated fr...
-Aromadendrene - the Sesquiterpene of Eucalyptus Oils
A sesquiterpene occurs in most crude Eucalyptus oils, perhaps in all of them, although it is present in but small amount in many of those belonging to the Peppermint group. It does not appear to be ...
-The Paraffin Stearoptene of Eucalyptus Oils
The first member of the paraffins (probably belonging to the aliphatic series) occurring in the Eucalypts was isolated from the crude oil of E. acervula, Hook.f., the Red Gum of Tasmania. This subst...
-The Deposit which forms in the Oils of some Species of Eucalyptus
The oils of certain Eucalypts, when freshly distilled, contain a constituent which slowly changes its character and eventually deposits an insoluble precipitate. This constituent is never present in g...
-The Deposit which forms in the Oils of some Species of Eucalyptus. Part 2
The empirical formula obtained with the deposits of E. oleosa, E. populi-folia, and the undetermined species from Queensland, was C7HIOO in each case, but with those of E. punctata and E. occidentalis...
-The Deposit which forms in the Oils of some Species of Eucalyptus. Part 3
The figures quoted are those published by one of us in the Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, August, 1918, in a paper prepared to illustrate the value of the Refractometer for determinative...
-The Variation in the Character of Eucalyptus Oils Distilled from Trees of Differing Ages and Forms of Growth
The data given in the previous article dealing with the comparative constancy of the oil products, only treat with those distilled from general material, and not from individual trees or selected grow...
-Oils Of Eucalyptus Punctata
(Material collected at Canterbury and Belmore, localities a few miles from Sydney.) In May and June, 1897, a somewhat similar investigation had been undertaken, in order to determine what variations ...
-Leaf Material for Eucalyptus Oil Distillation
(a) From Naturally Growing Trees The most profitable species of Eucalyptus for oil production, considered from a commercial point of view, will be those which, both for yields and quality of oil, can...
-Eucalyptus Dives A Broad-Leaf Peppermint
This species produces a different class of oil altogether to that from E. Smithii. Under favourable conditions the trees grow to a fair size, and have often been lopped for oil production. The rate of...
-Eucalyptus Phellandra. A Narrow-Leaf Peppermint
This is another species which shows great vitality and gives an abundance of new growth after the trees are felled. The oil is different in character to those of E. Smithii and E. dives. At certain lo...
-Eucalyptus Dives A Broad-leaf Peppermint
This species produces a different class of oil altogether to that from E. Smithii. Under favourable conditions the trees grow to a fair size, and have often been lopped for oil production. The rate of...
-Eucalyptus Phellandra. A Narrow-leaf Peppermint
This is another species which shows great vitality and gives an abundance of new growth after the trees are felled. The oil is different in character to those of E. Smithii and E. dives. At certain lo...
-The Mallees
Eucalyptus species, however, do not all grow to a large size, the Mallees more particularly, and, for the reasons mentioned above, this shrubby growth is perhaps more useful for oil distillation tha...
-Eucalyptus Macarthuri
Some evidence, however, is available, as a few acres were planted in September, 1911, at Emerald, Victoria, by Messrs. J. Bosisto & Co., with the geraniol and geranyl-acetate producing species, E. Mac...
-Eucalyptus Citriodora
It can also be demonstrated with other Eucalyptus species that the formation of their characteristic odoriferous constituents commences very early in the life history of the plant, and remains persist...
-Eucalyptus Staigeriana
This tree is also a Queensland species and yields an abundance of oil of quite a remarkable character for a Eucalyptus species, as it consists very largely of citral and limonene. The oil, in constitu...
-Eucalyptus Smithii
The rapidity of growth shown by cultivated trees of some of the cineol oil-producing species is extraordinary, and this has often been pointed out, particularly with E. globulus. We have given some a...
-Table Of Analyses Of The Crude Oils Of Cultivated Material Of Eucalyptus Smithii
No., age of tree, and date of felling. Specific gravity at 15 C. Optical rotation Refractive index at 200 C Solubility in 70 per cent. alcohol. Cineol, per c...
-Eucalyptus Oil Distilling Plants And Their Construction
In the smaller distilling plants, in New South Wales particularly, it has become customary to generate the steam in the vessel in which the leaves are packed. A very general method is to employ one or...
-Illustrations
The following series of plates will serve to illustrate the various forms of Eucalyptus oil stills in operation in Australia; from the single tank, where direct firing is employed, to the larger insta...
-Commercial Applications of Eucalyptus Oils
The various types of Eucalyptus oils find employment in many ways, and new uses for them are frequently being discovered. The industry to-day has reached very fair dimensions in Australia, and the out...
-Eucalyptus Dives
Oil collected during - Specific gravity at 15 C. Rotation aD. Refractive index at 20C. Flotation efficiency. First hour... 0.8835 . 657 ...
-Eucalyptus Phellandra
Oil collected during - Specific gravity at 150 C. Rotation aD Refractive index at 200 C. Cineol, per cent. Flotation officii First hour... 0.9100 .5...
-Conclusion
THE foregoing work, which has, inter alia, occupied our attention for a period of thirty years, and which embraces the investigation of individual species spreading over such a very wide area, serves ...
-Technical Education Series
No. 1 (Technical College). - *Mines and Minerals: A Guide for the Australian Miner. By S. H. Cox, F.G.S., and F. Ratte. Small 8vo., pp. 341. 1885. 2 (Technical lle...









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