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Hygiene Of The Nursery | by Louis Starr



Including the general regimen and feeding of infants and children, and the domestic management of the ordinary emergencies of early life

TitleHygiene Of The Nursery
AuthorLouis Starr
PublisherP. Blakiston's Son & CO
Year1913
Copyright1913, Louis Starr
AmazonHygiene of the nursery

To my little patients some of whom in the rapid passing of time, may soon assume parental duties this volume is affectionately dedicated

By The Same Author

The Digestive Organs In Childhood. The Diseases of the Digestive Organs in Infancy and Childhood. With Chapters on the Investigation of Disease, the Management of Children, Massage, etc. Third Revised Edition. With Lithograph Plates and Wood Engravings.

Price, Cloth, $3.00 net.

P. Blakiston's Son & CO., Publishers 1012 Walnut Street, Philadelphia

-Preface To The Eighth Edition
In the preparation of this edition of Hygiene of the Nursery the subject matter has been carefully revised, and amended wherever necessary to keep abreast with the advances and improvements constantly...
-Preface To The First Edition
Having a firm belief in the proverb that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure, the author has endeavored, in the succeeding pages, to point out a series of hygienic rules which, if applie...
-Chapter I. The Features Of Health
Every ill child presents certain well-defined alterations in the manner of performance of the various functions of the body. Thus, the pulse and respiration may be altered in character and frequency; ...
-1. The Face
The face of a healthy, sleeping child wears an expression of absolute repose. The eyelids are completely closed, the lips very slightly parted, and, though a faint sound of rhythmical breathing may be...
-2. The Skin and General Appearance
In the new-born infant the color of the skin varies from a deep to a light shade of red. After the first week this redness fades away, leaving the surface yellowish-white. At times this yellow color i...
-3. Development
To be robust the newly born infant must have a certain average length and weight. The length varies between sixteen and twenty-two inches, and the weight between six and eight pounds. From the first ...
-3. Development. Continued
It may be well to mention here that children will often remain, for a considerable time, almost stationary in height, and then have periods of very rapid growth. The latter is often to be observed in ...
-4. Position and Gestures
The complete repose depicted on the countenance of a sleeping child when free from illness is shown also by the posture of the body. The head lies easy on the pillow, the trunk rests on the side, slig...
-5. The Voice
Crying is the chief if not the only method that the young infant possesses of making known his displeasure, discomfort or suffering and affords almost the sole means of determining the characters of t...
-6. Mode of Drinking and Swallowing
By watching an infant taking the breast or bottle, some information can be obtained of the condition of the mouth and throat, and of the respiratory organs. A healthy child drinks continuously without...
-7. Appetite
Hunger and appetite must not be regarded as synonymous terms. The former is the craving of all the tissues of the body for nutritive material, or food, and is expressed by a sinking or craving sensati...
-8. Eructation
Eructation or regurgitation is readily produced and of frequent occurrence in infancy, on account of the vertical position and more cylindrical outline of the stomach at this period of life. Babies s...
-9. The Faecal Evacuations
The daily number of evacuations of the bowels natural for a child varies greatly with its age. For the first six weeks there should be three or four movements every twenty-four hours. After this time,...
-10. The Urine
It is impossible to make a definite statement as to the number of times the urine is voided by a healthy infant in each twenty-four hours. In any given case the frequency will differ very much from da...
-11. The Respiration
In adults there are two well-marked types of respiration, viz., the abdominal and the superior costal. The abdominal - met with in perfection in adult males - is the type in which the movements of ins...
-12. The Pulse
To obtain any reliable data from the pulse it must be felt during perfect quiet. During sleep is the best time, but if the child cannot be caught in this condition, advantage may be taken of its placi...
-13. The Temperature
By placing the hand, upon the surface of the body we can readily detect marked variations in the temperature; thus the nose and extremities feel cold in diseases associated with depression of the vita...
-14. The Mouth and Throat
In infants, gentle pressure of the fingers upon the chin is sufficient to cause wide opening of the mouth. An older child will frequently open the mouth when requested, but if he refuses, the finger, ...
-15. Dentition
Normally, the first or milk teeth, twenty in number, are cut in groups, each effort being succeeded by a pause or period of rest. The diagram and table following show the grouping, the date of erupt...
-Chapter II. The Nursery
Every well-regulated house in which there are children should be provided with two nurseries, one for occupation by day, the other by night. Before entering further into the subject, however, attenti...
-The Nursery. Part 2
Gas, or much better, electricity, certainly may be used in the late afternoon and evening. During the night hours, should a light be constantly required, the best means of obtaining it is from one of ...
-The Nursery. Part 3
Old-fashioned pitchers and basins are to be preferred to stationary washstands. The latter, though, are so convenient - especially when supplied with hot- and cold-water faucets - that they may be per...
-Chapter III. The Nurse-Maid
While the mother is the natural guardian of the physical and moral welfare of her children, the nurse-maid has a considerable influence over both; for the former, however anxious and watchful, has so ...
-Chapter IV. Clothing
In introducing this subject, it may be well to call attention to two important points that are often either unrecognized or overlooked. First. - All children, but particularly infants, have little po...
-Clothing. Part 2
The band or binder may be of fine, soft flannel or of knitted wool. In either case it should extend from the brim of the pelvis or hip bones to the lower ribs. The flannel band should be five inches w...
-Clothing. Part 3
These, as furnished in the stores, are made of merino, but any clever woman should be able to cut them out of Canton flannel and make them at home. They must fit the legs moderately closely, and have ...
-Clothing. Part 4
The best method of fastening is by a lace, since this admits of making one part of the upper tight and another part loose, according to circumstances. Elastic fastenings, as in so-called congress sho...
-Chapter V. Exercise And Amusements
Healthful exercise, especially when taken in the open air and sunshine, invigorates the nerves; secures an active performance of such vital functions as circulation, respiration and digestion; maintai...
-Exercise And Amusements. Continued
The best kind of carriage is none too good for the load it is destined to carry. It should run smoothly, without jolt or jar; its wheels should be provided with rubber tires and kept from creaking by ...
-Chapter VI. Sleep
For some time after birth infants spend the intervals between being fed, washed and dressed, in sleep, and thus pass eighteen or twenty out of the twenty-four hours. As age advances, the amount of sle...
-Chapter VII. Bathing
A well-known English writer states that water to the body - to the whole body - is a necessity of life, of health, and of happiness; it wards off disease, it braces the nerves, it hardens the frame, ...
-Bathing. Part 2
An ordinary oblong tin tub, painted white inside and large enough to give plenty of room, is to be preferred to either a porcelain basin or a wooden tub. When in use, the tub should be placed on the f...
-Bathing. Part 3
The sponge is used simply to clear off the dirt loosened by the wash-rag, and to remove all superfluous soap; therefore, when this is accomplished, the child should be lifted from the tub to the lap a...
-Bathing. Part 4
In the tri-weekly cleansing bath the process of washing is much the same as in infancy. That is, the bathtub being filled with water at a temperature of about 90, the child is put into it up to h...
-Bathing. Part 5
Swimming in salt water is more invigorating than in fresh. Apart from the different quality of the two waters, the battling with the waves in the former case is more exhilarating, and the sea breezes,...
-Bathing. Part 6
Hot air or Vapor Bath. - The body-clothing being removed the child is laid upon a bed, the bed-clothing is pinned tightly about the neck so that the head only is outside, and raised about a foot above...
-Chapter VIII. Food
The choice of food and the method of feeding bear so close a relation to age that it is necessary, in studying these questions, to regard them from the stand-point of the two stages of a child's life ...
-1. Feeding from the maternal breast
There can be no doubt that this, being the natural, is at the same time the proper method of nourishing the human infant; and fortunate is the baby that, in our day of advanced civilization and city l...
-1. Feeding from the maternal breast. Part 2
It stands without saying that the cry of hunger must be relieved by giving food; but this is the very worst thing to do under other circumstances, for it both breaks up good habits and produces seriou...
-1. Feeding from the maternal breast. Part 3
Sudden weaning is not advisable unless, while the breast is being presented, there is an absolute refusal to take artificial food from either a bottle or a spoon. This is most apt to occur when food h...
-2. Feeding by a wet-nurse
The advantage of feeding from the breast of a wet-nurse is that the mother's milk is substituted by the milk of another woman; in other words, that natural feeding is continued - a matter of moment in...
-3. Artificial feeding
In my experience there are few American women, especially in the well-to-do classes, who do not look upon the duty of nursing their babies as a pleasant one; but there are many who are completely unab...
-Artificial feeding. Part 2
Cows' milk* (market milk) has a specific gravity of 1.027 to 1.035, is richer looking, that is, whiter and more opaque than human milk, is slightly acid in reaction unless perfectly fresh from pasture...
-Artificial feeding. Part 3
Again, more than half of the saccharine ingredient of this preparation is cane sugar, added for the purpose of preservation, and this material is very liable, when in excess, to ferment in the aliment...
-Artificial feeding. Part 4
The author has been unable to verify the above measurements, and has, on the contrary, found no uniformity in the size of the stomach for given ages; still clinical experience is a sufficient guide, a...
-Artificial feeding. Part 5
Diet during the first week: Gravity cream* (16%). . Whey................. Water, 98-100 F...... Milk sugar............. 2 teaspoonfuls. 3 teaspoonfuls. 3 teaspoonfuls. 1/3 teaspoonful...
-Artificial feeding. Part 6
Diet from the fourteenth to eighteenth month, five meals a day: First meal, 7 a.m. - A slice of stale bread, broken and soaked in a breakfast-cupful (eight fluidounces) of milk; or two tablespoonfuls...
-Artificial feeding. Part 7
If, after feeding, vomiting occur, with the expulsion of large, firm clots of casein, or if there be diarrhoea with the expulsion of curds, the effect of adding lime-water or barley-water must be trie...
-Artificial feeding. Part 8
* The subject of peptonization is further considered in Chapter IX (Dietary). Peptonized milk......... Milk sugar.............. Water.................. 4 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 2). 1/2 teaspoon...
-Artificial feeding. Part 9
While on No. 4 the patient must take from 12 to 24 fluidounces of pure water, barley-water, or white-of-egg- (albumin-) water each twenty-four hours. These must be given in small doses at short interv...
-Artificial feeding. Part 10
The tips or nipples, of which there should also be several, must be composed of soft, flexible India-rubber, and a conical shape is to be preferred, as being more readily everted and cleaned; the open...
-Artificial feeding. Part 11
As milk exists in the healthy cow's udder it is aseptic, but during milking and subsequent handling and transportation it often becomes contaminated by various foreign materials, both organic and inor...
-Artificial feeding. Part 12
The problem, therefore, that presents itself in the sterilization of milk for infants' food is to devise a method which shall efficiently destroy the contained germs, and yet in the least possible deg...
-Artificial feeding. Part 13
The various milk mixtures are often Pasteurized, the method being the same as for pure milk. Childhood. - Children who have cut their milk teeth may be fed for a twelvemonth - namely, up to the age o...
-Artificial feeding. Part 14
The following list will give an idea of the arrangement of the meals: Breakfast Every Day. Milk. Porridge and cream. Bread and butter. One Dish Only Each Day Fresh fish. Eggs, lightly boiled. ...
-Chapter IX. Dietary
In the preceding chapter so much attention has been devoted to the subject of the artificial feeding of infants, and so many formulas have been given for the modification of cows' milk as a substitute...
-Top Milk Mixtures
Top milk as ordinarily used, contains 7 per cent. fat. To obtain it a quart bottle of milk, just as it is received from the dairy, is allowed to stand in a refrigerator for four or five hours, and t...
-General Infant Formulas
Age. Cream. Upper layer milk. Milk sugar. Lime-water. Filtered water. Amount at each feeding. Number of feedings. 1st and 2d days. . . 1 oz, (a) ...
-Summer Infant Formulas
Age. Cream. Upperlayer milk. Milk sugar. Lime-water. Filtered water. Amount at each feeding. Number of feedings. 1st week........... 1 oz. (a) ...
-Milk And White-Of-Egg Food
The whites of three eggs. Lime-water............ Milk.................. 3 tablespoonfuls (fid. oz. 1 1/2). 1 pint. Shake the egg and lime-water forcibly together for five minutes; then add the mil...
-Peptonized Foods
For the process of peptonization, or predigestion, the extractum pancreatis, prepared by Fairchild Bros. & Foster, New York, gives, in my experience, the most satisfactory results, and in all the reci...
-Humanized Milk
Peptogenic milk powder...... Milk, fresh and cold.......... Water...................... Cream...................... 1 level teaspoonful. 4 tablespoonfuls (fid. oz. 2). 4 tablespoonfuls (fid. oz. 2...
-Meat Broths, Beef Broth
Lean beef with bone............. Cold water..................... Salt.......................... Boiled rice or barley............. 1 pound. 1 quart. 1 teaspoonful. 2 tablespoonfuls. Remove fat ...
-Raw-Beef Juice
Take one pound of sirloin of beef; warm it on a broiler before a quick fire; cut into cubes of about one-quarter of an inch, and after placing in a lemon squeezer or meat press, forcibly express the j...
-Raw Beef
Cut a tenderloin beefsteak into the finest possible pieces and free it as nearly as may be from particles of fat; then place in a mortar and pound until the meat becomes pulpy; next rub through a fine...
-Clear Brown Soup
Cut a shin of beef into pieces; put it into a saucepan with just enough water to cover it; when it boils, skim it, and add a bundle of sweet herbs, a little turnip, carrot, onion and celery, and a lit...
-Consomme
Make a beef broth by taking one or two pounds of beef, according to the strength required, from the leg, round or chuck; wash well; cut in pieces and put on to boil in three quarts of cold water, Whil...
-Chicken Broth
A small chicken, or half of a large fowl, thoroughly cleaned, and with all the skin and fat removed, is to be chopped, bones and all, into small pieces; put these, with a proper quantity of salt, into...
-Mutton Broth
Lean loin of mutton............ Water........................ 1 pound (exclusive of bone). 3 pints. Boil gently until very tender, about four hours, adding a little salt; strain into a basin, and, ...
-Veal Broth
Lean veal.............. Cold water.............. 1/2 to 1 pound, according to strength required. 1 pint. Mince the meat; pour upon it a pint of cold water; let it stand for three hours; then slowly...
-Oyster Soup
Drain one pint of oysters through a colander for five minutes, to remove the liquor, and then pour over them one pint of boiling water, which must be thrown aside; add to the liquor already drained a ...
-Arrowroot Pudding
Mix a tablespoonful of arrowroot with cold water; put it over the fire in a porcelain-lined saucepan; add a pint of boiling milk, stirring constantly, and one egg well beaten with a tablespoonful of w...
-Blanc Mange
Gelatin..................... Water...................... Cream...................... White sugar................. Extract of lemon............. 1/2 ounce. 1/2 pint. 1 pint. 3 ounces. Sufficient t...
-Hominy Grits
Two tablespoonfuls of hominy, having been thoroughly soaked and boiled soft, are rubbed up with butter until quite light; then, half a pint of boiled milk is added slowly, with constant stirring; next...
-Junket
Milk............................. Essence of pepsin (Fairchild's)...... 1 pint. 2 teaspoonfuls. (Wine of pepsin or liquid rennet may also be used.) Heat the milk to a temperature of 100 F. (...
-Milk And Gelatin
Gelatin........................... Barley water, hot.................. Powdered sugar.................... Milk............................. 1 tablespoonful. 1/2 pint. 2 tablespoonfuls. 1 pint. D...
-Rice Milk
Rice.............................. Cornstarch........................ Milk............................. 2 tablespoonfuls. 1 teaspoonful. 2 pints. Boil in a farina boiler until each grain of the ...
-Rice Pudding
Take three ounces of rice, and swell it very gently in one pint of new milk. Let it cool; then stir into it one ounce of fresh butter, two ounces of pounded sugar, the yolks of three eggs, and some gr...
-Oatmeal Gruel
Mix a large tablespoonful of oatmeal flour with two tablespoonfuls of cold water, stirring to bring to a state of uniformity; pour this into a pint of boiling water in a double boiler, and boil for tw...
-Sago Jelly
Take two tablespoonfuls of sago; wash carefully; soak for four hours in half a pint of cold water, and then add half a pint of hot water, a pinch of salt, a tablespoonful of sugar and a little grated ...
-Tapioca
Wash two tablespoonfuls of the best tapioca; soak in fresh water over night; add a little salt, a pint of milk or water, and simmer until quite soft, stirring frequently if milk be used; then pour int...
-Egg And Brandy
Brandy.................. Cinnamon water.......... The yolks of two eggs. White sugar.............. 8 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 4). 8 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 4). 1 tablespoonful. Rub the yolks and...
-Wine Whey
Boil a pint of fresh milk; while boiling, pour in eight tablespoonfuls of sherry wine; bring it to the boil a second time, being careful not to stir it; when it boils, put it aside until the curd sett...
-Flax-Seed Tea
Whole flaxseed.................... Bruised licorice root................ Water, boiling..................... 1 ounce. 2 teaspoonfuls. 1 pint. Pour the boiling water over the flax-seed and licoric...
-Albumin-Water
Mix, by thoroughly shaking, the raw whites of one or two fresh eggs with one pint of cold, pure water. Sugar or salt may be added to taste. ...
-Barley-Water
Put two teaspoonfuls of washed pearl barley into a saucepan with a pint of clear water, and boil slowly down to two-thirds of a pint; strain through muslin. Or blend carefully one or two teaspoonfuls,...
-Oatmeal Water Or Cracked-Wheat Water
Add from 1 to 3 tablespoonfuls of well-cooked oatmeal or cracked-wheat porridge to a pint of water; heat almost to boiling-point with constant stirring until a smooth mixture is obtained; strain. ...
-Rice-Water
Put two tablespoonfuls of rice, thoroughly washed, into a quart of water and place near the fire, where it may soak and be kept warm for two hours; then boil slowly for one hour, or until the water is...
-Lime-Water
Take one heaping teaspoonful of slaked lime and put with one quart of boiled or distilled water into a bottle, well corked, and shake thoroughly two or three times at intervals of half an hour; then a...
-Whey
Milk............................... Essence of pepsin (Fairchild's)......... 1 pint. 2 teaspoonfuls. Heat the milk to a temperature of 100 F., and add the pepsin with gentle stirring; let the...
-Gelatin
Put a piece of plate gelatin, an inch square, into half a tumblerful of cold water, and let it stand for three hours; then turn the whole into a teacup, place this in a saucepan half full of water, an...
-Flour-Ball
Take a pound of good wheat flour - unbolted, if possible; tie it up very tightly in a strong pudding-bag; place it in a saucepan of water and boil constantly for ten hours; when cold remove the cloth;...
-Pearl-Barley Jelly
Put three tablespoonfuls of pearl barley soaked over night into a double boiler with a quart of clear water and boil slowly down to a pint; strain, and allow the liquid to set into a jelly. In making ...
-Nutritious Enemata
The process of peptonization, already described, is very useful in the preparation of food for absorption by the lining membrane of the rectum. Peptonized milk No. 1, or an egg mixed with a pint of mi...
-Diet In Special Diseases
In formulating the following diet lists it is necessary to adapt them to definite ages, but, provided the essential idea is adhered to, the quantity of the food may be increased or diminished and the ...
-Partial Peptonization For Feeble Digestion -Age, Four Months
Make each bottle of food as follows: Cream................... Milk.................... Water................... Peptogenic milk powder... . 1 tablespoonful (fld. oz. 1/2). 5 tablespoonfuls (fld. ...
-"No-Milk" Diet For Acute Gastrointestinal Disorders - Acute Vomiting, Entero-Co-Litis, Choleriform Diarrhcea, Etc. - Age, Six Months
1. Whey................. Barley-water........... Milk sugar............. 4 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 2). 4 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 2). 1 teaspoonful. For one portion, to be given every two hours....
-Diet For Chronic Gastro-Intestinal Catarrh - Mucous Disease Of Older Children
Breakfast, 7.30 a.m. - One or two tumblerfuls (fld. oz. 8) of milk guarded by lime-water (fld. oz. 2 to tumblerful), the yolk of a soft-boiled egg, and a thin slice of stale unbuttered bread. Luncheo...
-Diet For Chronic Vomiting In Infants
Fresh cream............ Whey.................. Barley-water............ 1 tablespoonful (fld. oz. 1/2). 2 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 1). 2 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 1). Or, Weak veal-broth (1/2 lb....
-Diet For Chronic Diarrhcea When Milk Foods Undergo Acid Fermentation - Age Six To Twelve Months
First meal, 7 A.M. Veal-broth (1/2 lb. of veal to a pint of water), Barley-water... of each, 6-8 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 3-4). Second meal, 10 a.m. Cream................... Whey (freshly prepared...
-Diet For Habitual Constipation In Infants-Age, Three Months
1. Cream................ Milk.................. Milk sugar............. Salt.................. Bethlehem oatmeal (fine powder).............. Water................. 1 tablespoonful (fld. oz. 1/2...
-Diet For Habitual Constipation In Older Children - Age, Eighteen Months To Two And One-Half Years
First meal, 7 a.m. - A breakfast-cupful (fld. oz. 8) of new milk, with an additional tablespoonful (fld. oz. 1/2) of cream; 2 to 4 tablespoonfuls of thoroughly cooked oatmeal or cracked-wheat porridge...
-Diet In Infantile Scurvy - Age, Eight Months. First Meal, 7 A.m
Cream................ Milk.................. Milk sugar............ Salt.................. Water................ 1 tablespoonful (fld. oz. 1/2). 9 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 4 1/2). 1 teaspoonful...
-Diet In Acute Nephritis, Scarlatinal Or Catarrhal - Age, Four Years
First meal, 7.30 a.m. Milk................... A good malt food....... Barley-water............ 4 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 2 ). 1 tablespoonful (oz. 1/2). 11 tablespoonfuls (fld. oz. 5 1/2). Secon...
-Diet In Lithemia, Excess Of Uric Acid In Urine, Gouty Eczema, Etc. - Age, Four Years
First meal, 8 A.m. - Milk, 7 fluidounces, Vichy water, 1 fluid-ounce (one or two portions); one or two yolks of soft-boiled eggs with salt, or a bit of fresh fish or sweetbread; or one or two slices o...
-Diet In Rickets Without Diarrhcea - Age, Eighteen Months
(If diarrhoea be a symptom, use diet for chronic diarrhoea.) First meal, 7.30 a.m. - A breakfast-cupful (fld. oz. 8) of milk, with a tablespoonful (fld. oz. 1/2) of cream; on alternate days the yolk o...
-Diet In Pulmonary Phthisis - Age, Seven Years
First meal, 8 a.m. - A breakfast-cupful (fld. oz. 8) of milk, alkalin-ized with gr. v sodii bicarb.; a soft-boiled egg, or broiled fresh fish, or stewed sweetbread; thin bread, buttered. Second meal,...
-Diet And Regimen In Chorea - Childhood
Confine patient to bed, and keep in recumbent position. At 5.30 a.m., a breakfast-cupful (fld. oz. 8) of warm milk. At 7 a.m., a breakfast-cupful (fld. oz. 8) of warm milk; three slices (1 oz. each)...
-Chapter X. Massage
Systematic manipulation is of great value both as a means of preserving health and as a scientific method of treating certain diseases in children. Mere rubbing or friction of the surface cannot be i...
-Massage. Continued
In these cases massage not only aids the baths and inunctions in their general action, but directly and powerfully increases nutrition and muscle force, and materially hastens an otherwise slow proces...
-Chapter XI. Emergencies
In Chapter I (The Features Of Health), attention was directed to certain deviations from the features of health that should lead the mother or nurse to suspect the onset of disease. In addition to the...
-Accidents And Disorders Occurring At Birth Or Soon After Injuries Received During Birth
The shape of the head is sometimes altered by the compression it is subjected to during a prolonged and difficult labor. The deformity is usually in the direction of elongation, the distance from the ...
-Bleeding From The Navel String
This serious accident occasionally occurs some hours after birth. It arises from the cord being carelessly tied or from its being unusually large at birth and subsequently shrinking, so that the ligat...
-Ulceration Of The Navel
The cord generally separates from the navel between the fifth and fifteenth day after delivery, and the parts should then heal without trouble. Occasionally, after the falling of the cord, a small gro...
-Secondary Bleeding From The Navel
At the time of, or several days after, the separation of the cord, bleeding may take place from the navel. In this event, which is fortunately uncommon, place the point of the finger over the part and...
-Yellow Staining Of The Skin
During the first few days of life, especially after a difficult and tedious birth, there is apt to be intense congestion of the skin, followed, as the redness fades, by a brownish yellow discoloration...
-Retention Of Urine And Faces
Infants frequently do not pass urine for many hours after birth, sometimes not for days. This may be due to complete want of secretion or to some temporary engorgement of the kidneys, which can be ...
-Swelling Of The Breasts
At birth, or within the following day or two, the mammary glands of an infant may swell, become hard and painful, and secrete a thin fluid much resembling milk. Never make any pressure to remove the s...
-Inflammation Of The Eyes
This is a most important condition, and, from the outset, requires the attention of the physician and the greatest care on the part of the nurse. The inflammation usually comes on about three days af...
-Harelip And Cleft Palate
These are deformities requiring the attention of the surgeon, and under ordinary circumstances his aid should, in case of simple harelip, be sought Within the first six months of the child's life, so ...
-Tongue-Tie
In this condition the bridle beneath the tongue is either too short, or is attached so near the tip of the tongue as to interfere, at first, with the movements of the organ in sucking, and, afterward,...
-Accidents And Disorders Occurring In Infancy And Childhood. Bruises
A contusion or bruise must be treated as soon as received, if one would relieve pain, lessen swelling and prevent the formation of a black and blue spot. Compresses wet with hot water, a light ice bag...
-Sprains
Do not make light of a severe sprain, for the consequences are often more lasting than those of a broken bone. Much care and patience will be required in the management of sprains, the great point be...
-Fractures
The breaking of a bone is indicated by deformity of the limb, such as bending, shortening, or twisting, and when this occurs, much suffering to the patient and injury to the part may be saved by a lit...
-Cuts
These may be clean, as when made by a knife; torn, by a broken plate; or abraded, by a fall on hard, rough ground. If large and deep, the surgeon should be called at once. In trifling cases, the nurse...
-Burns And Scalds
The danger from burns or scalds is in direct proportion to the extent of surface involved and the depth of tissue destroyed. Fortunately, the ma- jority of cases are trifling, and usually the hands or...
-Stings Of Insects
Children, being more ignorant, are more frequently stung by bees, wasps, and other insects, than adults. Examine the wound the first thing with a magnifying glass, and if the sting be still in the tis...
-Foreign Bodies In The Ear
When a foreign substance has entered the ear, the plan for its extraction depends somewhat upon the nature of the material. In any case, however, bend the child's head toward the affected side, cause ...
-Foreign Bodies In The Eye
A simple plan for removing cinders and the like from the eye is to pull the upper eyelid forward and downward, by grasping the eyelashes, and direct the child to look upward. In this way the lashes of...
-Foreign Bodies In The Nose
Children frequently insert shoe-buttons, peas, beans, and other small objects into the nose. When these are not too firmly fixed, or have not been pushed too far up, they may be removed by closing the...
-Foreign Bodies In The Throat
A large, unchewed mass of food, a fish-bone, or some metallic substance, such as a piece of money, may become lodged at some point in the throat. When this occurs, immediately insert the finger and t...
-Bleeding From The Nose
Hemorrhage from the nose is sometimes so excessive as to lead to debility, or even threaten serious results. An injury or abrasion of the lining mucous membrane is the usual cause of hemorrhage, thoug...
-Earache
Earache is a very common cause of crying in infancy and childhood. Screaming from earache may be distinguished from that due to pain in the bowels, another fruitful source of crying, by the former bei...
-Colds And Coughs
A cold in the head is indicated by water eyes, sneezing - with a discharge of mucus from the nose - and a nasal voice. Simple remedies are often efficacious. Frequently grease the forehead and bridge ...
-Spasmodic Croup
In this condition there is a mild grade of catarrh of the lining mucous membrane of the larynx, accompanied by marked spasm of the laryngeal muscles. This spasm is an outcome of the excessive reflex n...
-Vomiting
The most healthy infant, even though it be fed at a normal breast, often expels a portion of each feeding. This is an act of regurgitation rather than vomiting, and is, in reality, a natural method of...
-Colic
Colic is a very common affection of infancy. It usually occurs in the period between birth and the end of the third month, and gives rise to much discomfort, both to the infant and its attendants, by ...
-Constipation
Habitual constipation is such a common occurrence in infancy and childhood that it warrants a somewhat detailed consideration. The methods that may safely be employed to clear the lower bowel of accum...
-Convulsions
Convulsions arise from so many diverse causes that it is impossible to indicate more than what is to be done during the fit and prior to the arrival of the physician. When the attack comes on, the ch...
-A Chill
This is always a serious occurrence and warrants sending for the doctor. Before his arrival, put the child to bed, surround him with bottles containing hot water, place a moderately strong mustard pla...
-Fever
It is not my intention here to refer to the management of the essential fevers, for I hold that neither mother nor nurse is capable of managing them without professional assistance. However, the follo...
-Other Contagious Diseases
Disease. Period of incubation. Date of onset of characteris-tic symp-toms from invasion. Characteristic symptoms. Duration of illness. Duration of contagious-ness. ...
-Contagious Diseases And Disinfection
There are certain points connected with the nursing of contagious diseases and the subject of disinfection that are worthy of mention. In every case of contagious disease, allow in the room only thos...
-Vaccination
Every infant should be vaccinated. The proper time is between the third and sixth month, though the operation may be postponed if there be any disease of the skin, and in very delicate subjects, if th...
-Various Dressings. Poultices
Poultices may be made with corn-meal, bread, starch, ground slippery elm, flax-seed meal, or, in fact, any material that will retain heat and moisture. Flax-seed meal is usually selected because it is...
-Flax-Seed Poultice
Take a perfectly clean bowl, pour in the requisite quantity of boiling water, then add the flax-seed meal slowly, stirring continually with a large spoon to prevent the formation of lumps, until it be...
-The Jacket Poultice
The jacket poultice, sometimes employed in cases of pneumonia, requires some skill in its preparation. For a child from one to three years old, use about a pound of flax-seed meal in each poultice. ...
-Cotton Jacket
This dressing has almost supplanted the jacket poultice in the treatment of pneumonia in children, because it is more readily applied, is much lighter and consequently interferes less with the respira...
-Plasters. Mustard Plaster
These plasters are used for the purpose of making counterirritation, and must be graduated in strength according to the tenderness of the skin and the end to be accomplished. Pure mustard is very irri...
-Dry, Heated Applications
Make a bag of thick flannel, somewhat larger than the part to be covered. Half fill it with hot bran, hops, chamomile flowers, or whatever is to be used. Apply to the part on which it is intended to a...
-Cold-Water Dressing
Take a piece of clean old linen or muslin large enough to cover the affected part. Thoroughly wet with cold water. Keep constantly wet by redipping in the cold water, or by gently squeezing out a wet ...
-Hot-Water Dressing
The hot-water dressing is prepared in the same way as the above, substituting hot water for cold water, and covering with oiled silk. ...
-Turpentine Stupe
A turpentine stupe is made by wringing a piece of soft flannel out of hot water and sprinkling a few drops of warm spirits of turpentine on it. It should be covered with oiled silk while applied, and ...
-Administration Of Medicine
The administration of medicine often requires considerable skill, and is a task in which more clumsiness than tact is often exhibited. Teach the nurse that a child cannot swallow as long as the spoon ...









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