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Biology In Human Affairs | By Walter Van Dyke Bingham



Each chapter of this hook is well worth reading, but certain chapters are particularly well presented. Dr. L. M. Terman's chapter on Educational Psychology presents this subject in a simple and fascinatingly clear way. Professor H. M. Parshley discusses Zoology and Human Welfare in a clearly analytical and instructive style. The last chapter on Diet and Nutrition, by Professor McCollum, forms valuable reading for all persons. The other chapters are all very well done, though space does not permit a particular reference to them.

TitleBiology In Human Affairs
AuthorWalter Van Dyke Bingham
PublisherWhittlesey House
Year1931
Copyright1931, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
AmazonBiology In Human Affairs
book cover
-Introduction
Twelve able contributors have written this hook under the editorship of Professor Edward M. East of Harvard University. The editor is to be especially commended for having molded the twelve chapters i...
-Chapter I. Biology And Human Problems By Edward M. East
During the past century and a quarter science has remodeled man's universe. In this period, so short that many of us have talked with those who saw its onset, more significant discoveries have been ma...
-Biology And Human Problems. Part 2
As to there being true scientists whose tenets include belief in the possibilities of attaining knowledge through some mysterious insight which differs from all ordinary percepts and their rational co...
-Biology And Human Problems. Part 3
If one scans the history of the subject, he can readily sympathize with the reaction against science exhibited by the modern mystic in cap and gown who still answers to the name philosopher. Formerl...
-Biology And Human Problems. Part 4
The same timid soul who wants to preserve the Olympian mysteries inviolate is also disturbed by what he calls scientific dogmatism. The scientist is dogmatic; it must be admitted; but he is not dogmat...
-Biology And Human Problems. Part 5
Man would rather feel that his ego holds high value in the macrocosm. He aspires to a dominant position in this life and hopes for immortality hereafter. Sorely troubled with the dawning suspicion tha...
-Biology And Human Problems. Part 6
Apart from what is found in the works of Aristotle, the biology of the ancients was medicine. The medicine, for a thousand years of our era, was that of the second century Greek physician Galen, a hea...
-Biology And Human Problems. Part 7
In the third decade of the nineteenth century, biology reached out again. Schleiden and Schwann demonstrated that cells are the structural units of every organism, whether animal or plant. This discov...
-Biology And Human Problems. Part 8
If this brief and ragged account of the efforts of biologists brings to the imagination no vision of a world less encompassed with sorrow, the fault is mine. Let us assume that the task had been accom...
-Chapter II. The Prospects Of The Social Sciences By Frank H. Hankins
One of the most striking features of the evolution of culture is the sluggish conservatism of thought. This is true even of our very modern culture, which is doubtless the most rapidly changing the wo...
-The Prospects Of The Social Sciences. Part 2
Darwinism was very largely responsible for the development not only of a natural history view of man but also of a naturalistic view of society and its institutions. Obviously, if man is a part of nat...
-The Prospects Of The Social Sciences. Part 3
If, then, society is not a true organism, on the one hand, or an anarchistic aggregation of human beings on the other, it must, nevertheless, be viewed as a going concern having an existence of its ow...
-The Prospects Of The Social Sciences. Part 4
But man's natural defenselessness has affected his social evolution in another profound manner. It was an essential condition of his gregarious habit. There is obviously some question whether man has ...
-The Prospects Of The Social Sciences. Part 5
Is it not most truthful, and hence wisest, to recognize at the basis of these facts deep-seated elements of human nature? And what is more reasonable, from the standpoint of evolutionary biology, than...
-The Prospects Of The Social Sciences. Part 6
Finally, one further word may be hazarded regarding this struggle of races which has for so many thousands of years dominated the human scene. It has inspired men to their most heroic efforts, stimu...
-The Prospects Of The Social Sciences. Part 7
Social origins are lost behind the veil of the past, but the general scheme of culture is the same everywhere. There is first some degree of practical knowledge and development of the industrial arts....
-The Prospects Of The Social Sciences. Part 8
invention or other cultural change were wholly undreamed of by the participants. Would a Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton not turn in their graves if they could be made to realize that they...
-Chapter III. The Renaissance Of Psychology By Joseph Jastrow
Modern psychology derives from the application of the scientific method to the study of human nature; it studies objectively the mental mechanisms and motives and their organization; but such objecti...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 2
It is worth a moment's delay among the antecedents of psychology to gain a truer sense of the recency and significance of its establishment. If we go back to Descartes (1596-1650) - that great mind of...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 3
The establishment of the theory of organic evolution in the middle of the nineteenth century completely reconstructed the biological sciences; it gave a new key to the varieties of life, placed struct...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 4
plexity of even these in their actual integration is the impressive contribution. Of all the primitivepsychologies of recent years, the glandular psychology is the most illuminating. The glands of i...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 5
The older tendency was to humanize animal behavior, to apply crudely, and with prejudice, types of conduct that arise from awareness of motive and process and goal to the limited and differently orien...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 6
The early interpretation of insanity was demon possession, which the medicine man or priest might exorcise - though in the face of idiocy he was helpless. States of ecstasy and trance were sought fo...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 7
The Freudian doctrines include principles, mechanisms, and applications. Each is entitled to appraisal on its own merits, though the structure stands as a whole. In the first division, the exploration...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 8
There is one phase of psychopathology having such fundamental influence upon the integrity of the social structure that it alone would demand the development of a psycho-clinic namely, that of crime...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 9
Human variability, like the prolongation of human infancy to which John Fiske first directed attention, is an asset of inestimable value. Upon it the diversities of employments composing modern civili...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 10
In historical perspective the Wundtian period of psychology, following the clue of its antecedents - of Herbart particularly - was structural in its conception; it became functional by absorption of t...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 11
In further illustration of the controversial character of issues in psychology which must find their illumination under biological principles, there is the eternal problem of the eternal feminine - th...
-The Renaissance Of Psychology. Part 12
The note thus touched upon is important. The larger fields of application of modern psychology are those of political, industrial, national, and international concern. There is a psychological approac...
-Chapter IV. Educational Psychology By Lewis M. Terman
Psychology as a scientific discipline is only two generations old, the first laboratory having been founded in 1879. Educational psychology is considerably younger, for it was only natural that the ea...
-Educational Psychology. Part 2
According to the extreme behaviorists, practically all of a child's reactions are the result of conditioning,in Pavlov's sense. Human beings seem to have instincts of the sort designated by such ter...
-Educational Psychology. Part 3
In order to deal wisely with human nature in its formative period, the educator must take account of the natural tendencies of human nature to fear, anger, pugnacity, disgust, curiosity, self-assertio...
-Educational Psychology. Part 4
1.Although twins of two-egg origin resemble each other in intelligence no more than do ordinary siblings, twins of one-egg origin (having presumably identical heredity) are in the vast majority of cas...
-Educational Psychology. Part 5
Generally speaking, it is in the cultivation of desirable traits of personality that education can exert its greatest influence upon original nature. The best of training over and above that which is ...
-Educational Psychology. Part 6
A subject's test performances have little meaning until they have been compared with norms. The norms that have proved most useful are those based upon age. A subject whose score equals that of an ave...
-Educational Psychology. Part 7
The tests of musical ability help to identify, even in the lower school grades, the children who have musical promise. In the past, millions of dollars have been expended annually on the musical educa...
-Educational Psychology. Part 8
We know now that in the vast majority of cases dull children become dull adults, average children average adults, superior children superior adults. As for the feebleminded, they always remain feeble-...
-Educational Psychology. Part 9
All of these laws have been called into question by recent investigations. It has been shown that the alleged influence of repetition does not always operate and that mental and psycho-motor functions...
-Chapter V. Psychology In Industry By Walter V. Bingham
Industrial psychology touches life at many points. Most of us spend a large part of our waking hours at work, rom choice or from necessity, we are employed in one way Fr another, in production, busine...
-Psychology In Industry. Part 2
An apparently simpler problem in ascertaining the relationship between significant variables in the work situation is illustrated by an inquiry into the relation between intensity of illumination on t...
-Psychology In Industry. Part 3
So it is that mental hygiene, industrial psychology, and scientific management have a great deal in common. What, then, are the essential differences? They lie partly in the relative prominence given ...
-Psychology In Industry. Part 4
A similar accomplishment of industrial psychology has been in the direction of measuring a man's interests and relating these to the requirements of various kinds of work. Here the psychologist must d...
-Psychology In Industry. Part 5
The Western Electric Company, the Atlantic Refining Company, and many other firms have extended into the supervisory and executive levels their investigations of the usefulness of psychological tests....
-Psychology In Industry. Part 6
The preferred range varies for salesmen of different kinds of products and also with the territories within which they operate. In many occupations it has been shown that there is no upper limit to th...
-Psychology In Industry. Part 7
In age, on the other hand, there was a preferred range. Girls nineteen years of age or younger at date of hiring were a little more likely to be successful than those twenty years old or older. The di...
-Psychology In Industry. Part 8
Accidents have been largely reduced where this psychological approach to the problem has been added to the more familiar forms of effective safety effort - on the street railways and bus services of t...
-Psychology In Industry. Part 9
We fitted up a modest psychological laboratory near the offices of the medical examiner and the supervisor of employment and training. When men came to take a physical examination, some psychological ...
-Psychology In Industry. Part 10
Insubordination means a recorded instance of insubordination within the past three years. Delinquencies means a record of operating ahead of time, not slowing up at street intersections, etc. Misses...
-Psychology In Industry. Part 11
With the widespread use of labor-saving devices and automatic machinery, however, the problem of industrial fatigue has become less serious than that of boredom. The nature of monotony, its consequenc...
-Chapter VI. Heredity By Edward M. East
Descriptions of the properties of various chemical compounds are found in Egyptian papyri; the science of chemistry is no older than the American commonwealth. Exact knowledge of the composition of su...
-Heredity. Part 2
The second principle of inheritance discovered through the pea experiments is known as the Law of Independent Assortment. It states that the behavior of each homologous pair of genes in a hybrid, and ...
-Heredity. Part 3
The Mendelian interpretation of heredity having been shown to be satisfactory for all characteristics in widely separated groups of animals and plants, a fundamental underlying mechanism, common to th...
-Heredity. Part 4
Other chromosome mutations also occur in rare instances, and each usually produces a detectable change in the individual. A whole extra chromosome may be received by a germ cell owing to the failure o...
-Heredity. Part 5
Another important group of internal environmental factors may be termed factors of position. With favorable material, such as the sea urchin, the two cells resulting from the first division of the fer...
-Heredity. Part 6
It is not wholly fair to attribute these profound conclusions to the geneticist, however; the farmer discovered the facts years ago, while the geneticist was floundering in a sea of philosophic doubts...
-Heredity. Part 7
The least illogical attempt to justify the position of the absolute environmentalist is the comment that since the tremendous range in intellectual attainments shown by different individuals is not pa...
-Heredity. Part 8
In passing, it may be well to note that a number of papers have recently appeared in which the writers have failed to grasp the genetic concept of mentality. If it be true, these authors say, that var...
-Heredity. Part 9
If the members of each generation of United States citizens were grouped and trained according to their gifts, it might be well to give up the one man, one voteidea. Plural voting for the higher gra...
-Heredity. Part 10
Other instances of the applicability of genetic philosophy to social problems might be given were space available. Under the circumstances I must content myself with the suggestion that it would be de...
-Chapter VII. The Frontiers Of Medicine By Morris Fishbein
The evolution of medicine since the time of the Edwin Smith Papyrus (2400 b.c.) is a record of gradually developing knowledge built from the contributions of thousands of workers in every nation of th...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 2
It is possible, by listening to the beat of the heart and by feeling the pulse, to tell whether or not the beat is taking place satisfactorily, and whether or not the blood is being pushed through the...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 3
In all of this work the newer devices that have been developed and the research that has come from the laboratories of physiology, pathology, and bacteriology throughout the world, have been of inesti...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 4
Among the unsolved questions of medicine are the relationship of obstruction of the bowel to the development of serious symptoms of shock; the exact relationship of putrefaction in the bowel to the on...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 5
If the number of platelets is greatly reduced, the person bleeds easily under the skin. In some infectious diseases the number of platelets is promptly reduced, and one of the most significant manifes...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 6
It is believed that alcohol in moderation does not influence the blood pressure in some people. The withdrawal of excessive amounts of alcohol will lower the blood pressure in some people, but in othe...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 7
The intimate connection between the gall bladder, the liver, and the organs of digestion, brings about many complications; and a diagnosis as to whether or not a person is suffering from gall bladder ...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 8
A certain amount of various solutions is regularly found in the urine; but under certain conditions of disease, these solutions may be greatly increased in amount, or other substances may be excreted ...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 9
Since the great importance of water in illness has been so definitely established, many methods have been worked out for making certain that any sick patient receives a sufficient amount. It is possib...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 10
In some diseases, such as diabetes or Bright's disease, in very high fever, with profuse diarrhea, and with difficulty in the elimination of carbon dioxide in the lungs - such as occurs in pneumonia a...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 11
Just as there are thin people who eat tremendous quantities of food and still remain thin, so also there are fat people who eat very small quantities of food and continue to put on weight. This form o...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 12
Perhaps the greatest discovery of medical science in relationship to the control of such conditions has been the usefulness of physical methods of treatment. The application of heat - either through h...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 13
The bones of the human body derive their hardness from the fact that they are made largely of the salts of calcium. Calcium is commonly referred to as lime. The average man has about two kilograms of ...
-The Frontiers Of Medicine. Part 14
It is necessary to conceive of the human cells as being constantly swayed by many forces. They are animated with the life that comes to them through heredity, they are modified by the kind of nutrimen...
-Chapter VIII. The Outlook Of Public Health Work By Hugh S. Cumming And Arthur M. Stimson
The inference that disease is practically coeval with the existence of life seems justified by the testimony of prehistoric animal and human remains. This evidence supports the speculation that even t...
-The Outlook Of Public Health Work. Part 2
It would perhaps be difficult to cite any very significant improvements in public health until within the past two hundred years. Quarantine procedure, attributed to the mediaeval Italians, must, in i...
-The Outlook Of Public Health Work. Part 3
When bacteriology as applied to medicine began to yield quantitative results, health students began to discriminate regarding filth. The invisible typhoid bacillus concealed in a sparklingly clear wel...
-The Outlook Of Public Health Work. Part 4
Taken in a broad sense, biology includes a large number of branches. The space limits of this article permit reference to only some of the more striking applications of biological sciences in public h...
-The Outlook Of Public Health Work. Part 5
The third great division of the physical sciences is physics; and here, too, the contributions have been indispensable. For what would public health work amount to if there were no microscopes or othe...
-The Outlook Of Public Health Work. Part 6
Both official and voluntary health activities have in the past been subjected to some influences which have impeded or, to an extent, frustrated their usefulness. In the former, political preferment h...
-The Outlook Of Public Health Work. Part 7
This gloomy picture may seem overdrawn to those city dwellers who visualize the country as a blessed spot where happiness and health flourish. The picture may be overdrawn for some rural areas still u...
-The Outlook Of Public Health Work. Part 8
Public health research is divisible into two categories: first, the fundamental sort, which seeks to discover and formulate the natural laws which underlie a great many phenomena relating to health su...
-The Outlook Of Public Health Work. Part 9
Among educational authorities there are many advanced minds who realize the shortcomings of present methods. They labor under great difficulties in trying to overcome the prejudices of self-perpetuati...
-Chapter IX. Physiology Of To-Day By E. Kennerly Marshall, Jr
Physiology, in brief, is the study of function as distinguished from structure. When the physiologist looks at a living organism, he asks, What does it do and how does it do it? What are its various ...
-Physiology Of To-Day. Part 2
It has also been found quite recently that the spleen contracts during muscular exercise and shunts considerable concentrated blood, which has been stored here, into the general circulation. This help...
-Physiology Of To-Day. Part 3
Lastly, in considering the general methods of attack upon their problems used by physiologists, one sees clearly, although very faintly, a reconciliation being brought about with zoology. An increasin...
-Physiology Of To-Day. Part 4
Because of the difficulty described above in applying the Fick principle to man, other avenues of approach to the problem were sought. Another type of method, based on a determination of the rate of a...
-Physiology Of To-Day. Part 5
To understand the problem, a little must be explained about the intimate structure of the kidney. This organ is made up of many identical small units - in the human about one million in each kidney - ...
-Physiology Of To-Day. Part 6
Finally, let us take a third example. In no field of physiology has our knowledge grown more, have the results been more spectacular, or have the practical rewards to mankind been greater than in that...
-Chapter X. Zoology And Human Welfare By Howard M. Parshley
I What is human welfare? Deep thinkers have answered this question in a great variety of ways, each trying to catch the elusive essence of the Good, and few succeeding in such wise as others can unde...
-Zoology And Human Welfare. Part 2
Malaria is a common disease throughout the warmer portions of the world and has been recognized from early times as being especially prevalent near swamps and ponds. In its several varieties it causes...
-Zoology And Human Welfare. Part 3
The first necessity of human health is food; and it is in the precise constitution of food materials that modern nutrition studies have made remarkable discoveries of great theoretical and practical v...
-Zoology And Human Welfare. Part 4
The most recent accomplishment in endocrinology is the preparation by Swingle and Pfiffner of an active extract of the adrenal cortex, distinct and free from adrenalin. This extract will keep alive ca...
-Zoology And Human Welfare. Part 5
Another foreign undesirable is the Japanese beetle, introduced into New Jersey about 1916. The adult insect feeds on leaves and fruit of many different kinds, doing great damage during June and July, ...
-Zoology And Human Welfare. Part 6
These examples, chosen from among many, will serve to illustrate how zoology is contributing to human welfare by increasing the real wealth that is available in the form of useful things. Many agricul...
-Zoology And Human Welfare. Part 7
But perhaps the most distinctively biological feature of the family is the inheritance of traits from one generation to another. Formerly, this passing on of characteristics from parent to offspring w...
-Chapter XI. Efforts To Increase Food Resources By Donald F. Jones
History has much to say about generals and battles. Its pages are filled with the deeds of emperors and kings, too seldom glorious. But the major factor in the growth of states and empires has been th...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 2
How would these crops grow in the new soil and unfamiliar climate? was the question the anxious settlers asked themselves. Would they ripen before the fall freezes? What new insects and blights awaite...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 3
As the covered wagon went westward, many a fine piece of furniture and valued silverware was left behind, but not the seeds and plants that had been selected through so many trying years and upon whic...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 4
On the other hand, there is every evidence to show that corn was the principal food of the natives of America and had been since remote times. It was named in every tribal language and had a prominent...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 5
What will the great-granddaughter of this same woman have to serve in 1950? It is certain that twenty years from now will see some notable changes in fruits and vegetables. Already lettuce, fresh peas...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 6
Even before Mendel's time plant and animal breeders had learned that crossing different varieties or different breeds made new and more desirable combinations of characters, and that in some cases ent...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 7
In the same way, hardy pears have been produced at the Iowa station for the upper Mississippi Valley where, up to the present time, the trees have badly winterkilled. Plums and grapes are also grown i...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 8
How many know where the Crimson Rambler rose started its rovings? Is the Silver Moon a chance-sown seedling? If not, who is responsible for its development? Although many of our best apples and peache...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 9
The first notable advance in animal breeding methods occurred about the middle of the eighteenth century in England. The red, black, and pied, short-horned cattle of northeastern England, interbred wi...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 10
The most critical evidence for hybrid vigor in domestic animals is furnished by Roberts and Laible at the Illinois Experiment Station. A purebred Duroc-Jersey sow was mated in the same period of heat ...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 11
cultivated plant of the world at the present time. It produces the largest total amount of food and lends itself so easily to the use of machinery that it is grown cheaply on large areas. A history o...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 12
The failure was due, in part, to a lack of knowledge of the best methods of preparing the soil and the right time to sow. The seed did not germinate properly, and consequently the fields were foul wit...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 13
William Saunders knew how to work with vegetatively propagated fruits. When he found a plant that he liked, all he had to do was to root cuttings, and the new variety, when tested, was ready to distri...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 14
While he was busy doing these things, the years sped along until 1907. By this time Charles Saunders, at Ottawa, had tested and retested those hybrid wheats until only a few of the best remained. The ...
-Efforts To Increase Food Resources. Part 15
Most farmers know that inbreeding is injurious both to plants and animals; they could have told these scientists that they were wasting their time - in fact, worse. They were right; production went st...
-Chapter XII. Diet And Nutrition By Elmer V. Mccollum
What we know about the nutritive needs of the human body and about quality in foods is the result of experimental studies on animals, correlated with such observations as can be made on human subjects...
-Diet And Nutrition. Part 2
Effects of Deficiency of Vitamin A. Much research has been done on the effects of deprivation of animals of this vitamin. The injury to the body which results from this kind of specific starvation is ...
-Diet And Nutrition. Part 3
In vitamin B deficiency the nervous tissues suffer an injury almost as specific as that suffered by the epithelial cells in vitamin A starvation. The peripheral nerves are first affected. They undergo...
-Diet And Nutrition. Part 4
Vitamin D. Previous to 1922 nearly all infants and young children in the north temperate zone suffered at least a mild attack of rickets. In this condition the bones do not calcify and, as a consequen...
-Diet And Nutrition. Part 5
Iodine Deficiency and Goiter. One of the outstanding discoveries in the field of nutrition in recent years is the relation of deficiency of iodine in food and water to the incidence of simple goiter. ...
-Diet And Nutrition. Part 6
There has long been much speculation concerning the optimum content of protein in the dietary. The vegetarian generally eats a relatively low protein diet; the meat eater a high protein diet. Experime...









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