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Histology of Medicinal Plants | by William Mansfield



The medicinal plants are studied in great detail because they constitute one of the most important groups of economic plants. The cells found in these plants are typical of the cells occurring in the vegetable kingdom; therefore the book should prove a valuable text-book for all students of histology.

TitleHistology of Medicinal Plants
AuthorWilliam Mansfield
PublisherNew York John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Year1916
Copyright1916, William Mansfield
AmazonHistology of Medicinal Plants
-Preface
The object of the book is to provide a practical scientific course in vegetable histology for the use of teachers and students in schools and colleges. The medicinal plants are studied in great detai...
-Part I. Simple And Compound Microscopes And Microscopic Technic. Chapter I. The Simple Microscopes
The construction and use of the simple microscope (magnifiers) undoubtedly date back to very early times. There is sufficient evidence to prove that spheres of glass were used as burning spheres and a...
-Chapter II. Compound Microscopes
The compound microscope has undergone wonderful changes since 1667, the days of Robert Hooke. When we consider the crude construction and the limitations of Robert Hooke's microscope, we marvel at the...
-Compound Microscopes. Part 2
Forms Of Compound Microscopes The following descriptions refer to three different models of compound microscopes: one which is used chiefly as a pharmacognostic microscope, one as a research microsco...
-Compound Microscopes. Part 3
Polarization Microscope The polarization microscope (Fig. 20) is used chiefly for the examination of crystals and mineral sections as well as for the observation of organic bodies in polarized light....
-Chapter III. Microscopic Measurements
In making critical examinations of powdered drugs, it is frequently necessary to measure the elements under observation, particularly in the case of starches and crystals. Ocular Micrometer Microsco...
-Chapter IV. How To Use The Microscope
In beginning work with the compound microscope, place the base of the microscope opposite your right shoulder, if you are right-handed; or opposite your left shoulder, if you are left-handed. Incline ...
-How To Use The Microscope. Part 2
Care Of The Microscope If possible, the microscope should be stored in a room of the same temperature as that in which it is to be used. In any case, avoid storing in a room that is cooler than the p...
-How To Use The Microscope. Part 3
Cutting Sections Specimens prepared as described above may be cut with a hand microtome or a machine microtone Hand Microtome In cutting sections by a hand microtome, it is necessary to place the s...
-Chapter V. Reagents
Little attention is given in the present work to micro-chemical reactions for the reason that their value has been much overrated in the past. A few reagents will be found useful, however, and these f...
-Chapter VI. How To Mount Specimens
The method of procedure in mounting specimens for study varies according to the nature of the specimen, its preliminary treatment, and the character of the mount to be made. As to duration, mounts are...
-How To Mount Specimens. Continued
Cover Glasses Great care should be used in the selection of cover glasses, however, not only as regards their shape but as to their thickness. The standard tube length of the different manufacturers ...
-Part II. Tissues Cells, And Cell Contents. Chapter I. The Cell
The cell is the unit of structure of all plants. In fact the cell is the plant in many of the lower forms - so called unicellular plants. All plants, then, consist of one or more cells. While cells v...
-Chapter II. The Epidermis And Periderm
The epidermis and its modifications, the hypodermis and the periderm, form the dermal or protective outer layer or layers of the plant. The epidermis of most leaves, stems of herbs, seeds, fruits, fl...
-The Epidermis And Periderm. Part 2
Testa Epidermis Testa epidermal cells form the epidermal layers of such seeds as lobelia, henbane, capsicum, paprika, larkspur, belladonna, scopola, etc. In surface view the end walls are thick and ...
-The Epidermis And Periderm. Part 3
Unicellular Non-Glandular Hairs True plant hairs are tubular outgrowths of the epidermal cell, the length of these outgrowths being several times the width of the hair. The unicellular hairs are com...
-The Epidermis And Periderm. Part 4
Occasionally multicellular hairs assume the form of a shield (Plate 12, Fig. 1); in such cases the hair is termed peltate, as in the non-glandular multicellular hair of shepherdia canadensis. Hairs g...
-The Epidermis And Periderm. Part 5
Periderm The periderm is the outer protective covering of the stems and roots of mature shrubs and trees. The periderm replaces the epidermis. The periderm may be composed of cork cells, stone cell-c...
-Chapter III. Mechanical Tissues
The mechanical tissues of the plant form the framework around which the plant body is built up. These tissues are constructed and placed in such a manner in the different organs of the plant as to mee...
-Mechanical Tissues. Part 2
Porous And Striated Bast Fibres Porous and striated walled bast fibres occur in blackberry bark of root, wild-cherry bark, and in cinchona bark. The fibres of blackberry root bark (Plate 23, Fig. 1)...
-Mechanical Tissues. Part 3
Occurrence In Powdered Drugs In powdered drugs bast fibres occur singly or in groups. The individual fibres may be broken, as in mezereum and elm bark, or they may be entire, as in Ceylon cinnamon an...
-Mechanical Tissues. Part 4
Mechanical Tissues. Stone Cells Stone cells, like bast fibres, are branched or non-branched. Each group is then separated into subgroups according to wall structure (whether striated, or pitted and s...
-Mechanical Tissues. Part 5
Endodermal Cells The endodermal cells of the different plants vary greatly in form, color, structure, and composition of the wall, yet these different endodermal cells may be divided into two groups:...
-Chapter IV. Absorption Tissue
Most plants obtain the greater part of their food, first, from the soil in the form of a watery solution, and, secondly, from the air in the form of a diffusible gas. In a few cases all the food mater...
-Chapter V. Conducting Tissue
All cells of which the primary or secondary function is that of conduction are included under conducting tissue. It will be understood how important the conducting tissue is when the enormous quantity...
-Conducting Tissue. Part 2
Sclariform Vessels Sclariform vessels have interrupted bands of thickening on the inner walls. Two or more such bands occur between the two side walls. The series of bands are separated by uniformly ...
-Conducting Tissue. Part 3
Sieve Plate Sieve plates on cross-section (Plate 46, Fig. 2) are polygonal in outline, and the pores are either round or angled. Large sieve tubes and sieve plates occur in pumpkin stem; but, almost ...
-Conducting Tissue. Part 4
Structure Of Cells The structure of the individual cells forming the medullary rays differs greatly in different plants, but is more or less constant in structure in a given species. The medullary r...
-Conducting Tissue. Part 5
Conducting Tissue. Cortical Parenchyma Cortical parenchyma (Plate 51) differs greatly in size, thickness of the walls, and arrangement. A study of the longitudinal sections of different parts of medi...
-Chapter VI. Aerating Tissue
The aerating tissue of the plant performs a threefold function: first, it permits the exchange of gases during photosynthesis; secondly, it permits the entrance of oxygen and the exit of carbon dioxid...
-Aerating Tissue. Continued
Lenticels Lenticels are small openings occurring in the bark of plants. The lenticels bear the same relationship to the stem that the stomata do to the leaves. Lenticels, like stomata, have a threefo...
-Chapter VII. Synthetic Tissue
Under synthetic tissue are grouped all tissues and cells which form substances or compounds other than protoplasm. Such compounds are stored either in special cavities or in the cells of the plant, as...
-Synthetic Tissue. Continued
Synthetic Tissue. Secretion Cavities Secretion cavities are divided into three groups, according to the nature of the origin of the cavity: first, schizogenous cavities, which originate by a separati...
-Chapter VIII. Storage Tissue
Most drug plants contain storage products because they are collected at a period of the year when the plant is storing, or has stored, reserve products. These products are stored in a number of charac...
-Chapter IX. Cell Contents
The cell contents of the plant are divided into two groups: first, organic cell contents; and secondly, inorganic cell contents. The organic cell contents include plastids, starch grains, mucilage, i...
-Cell Contents. Part 2
Outline The outline of starch grains is made up of (1) rounded, (2) angled, and (3) rounded and angled surfaces. Starch grains with rounded surfaces may be either spherical, as in Plate 74, Fig. 3, ...
-Cell Contents. Part 3
Inulin Inulin is the reserve carbohydrate material found in the plants of the composite family. The medicinal plants containing inulin are dandelion, chicory, elecampane, Pyrethrum, and burdock. Pla...
-Cell Contents. Part 4
Form Of Aleurone Grains Much attention has been given to the study of the special parts of the aleurone grains, but one of the most important diagnostic characters has been overlooked, namely, that o...
-Cell Contents. Part 5
Raphides Raphides, which are usually seen in longitudinal view, resemble double-pointed needles. They are circular in crosssection, and the largest diameter is at the centre, from which they taper gr...
-Part III. Histology Of Roots, Rhizomes, Stems, Barks, Woods, Flowers, Fruits, And Seeds. Chapter I. Roots And Rhizomes
In Part II the different types of cells and cell contents found in plants have been studied. In Part III it will be shown how these different cells are associated and the nature of the cell contents i...
-Roots And Rhizomes. Part 2
Cross-Section Spigelia Rhizome The cross-section of spigelia rhizome (Plate 91) is as follows: Epidermis The epidermal cells are nearly angled and free of cell contents. Cortex The cortical paren...
-Roots And Rhizomes. Part 3
Powdered Ruellia Root When the roots of ruellia root and rhizome are powdered (Plate 94) they show the following structure: The epidermal cells vary from 7.8 by 15.6 micromillimeters to 15.1 by 16.6...
-Chapter II. Stems
When studying stems it should first be determined whether they were derived from monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous plants. This fact is ascertained by determining the type of the fibro-vascular bundl...
-Chapter III. Woody Stems. Buchu Stem
The cross-section of a buchu stem (Plate C), 1.6 millimeters in diameter, shows a few of the epidermal cells modified into thick-walled, roughish, unicellular trichomes (1). The remaining epidermal ce...
-Chapter IV. Barks
Barks are all obtained from dicotyledonous plants. In studying barks there should be ascertained the thickness, arrangement, form, structure, color, and cell contents of the cells occurring in the out...
-Chapter V. Woods
Quite a number of drugs consist of the wood of woody plants; such drugs are quassia, red saunders, white sandalwood, and guaiac. When studying woods it is necessary to observe the cross, tangential, ...
-Chapter VI. Leaves
Leaves collectively constitute the greatest manufacturing plant in the world. Most of the food, clothing, and medicine used by man is formed as a result of the work of the leaf. The cell contents, str...
-Leaves. Continued
Under Epidermis The under epidermal cells are uniformly smaller than the upper epidermal cells. It is thus seen that mountain laurel leaf has no hypodermal cells; no spongy parenchyma; no under pali...
-Chapter VII. Flowers
The histological structure of flowers is readily seen in the powder; therefore, in studying flowers, it is not necessary to section the various parts. Each part of the flower should be isolated and po...
-Flowers. Part 2
Powdered Insect Flowers The microscopic examination of insect powder is difficult for the reason that there are so many elements to be constantly kept in mind. The parts of the flower which contribut...
-Chapter VIII. Fruits
There is great variation in the structure of fruits, such a variation, in fact, that no one fruit has a structure typical of all the other fruits. Each fruit, however, has a pericarp and one or more s...
-Chapter IX. Seeds
Seeds are very variable in structure, so much so, in fact, that scarcely any two seeds have a similar structure. It is necessary, therefore, when examining seeds, to compare the structure of the seed ...
-Chapter X. Arrangement Of Vascular Bundles
Having familiarized ourselves with the different types of mechanical and conducting cells, we shall now consider the different ways in which these cells are associated to form the vascular and fibro-v...







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